ID 01 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Àngels Llanes (Universitat de Lleida), Ariadna Sánchez (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Júlia Barón (Universitat de Barcelona)
  • Title- The development of pragmatic markers in children: Does learning context matter?
  • Abstract

Research in interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) has shown that a study abroad (SA) experience has positive effects when learning pragmatics, but such development is not uniform across participants (see Alcón-Soler, 2015). As Sánchez-Hernández and Alcón-Soler (2019) claim, aspects such as the complexity of the pragmatic feature, contextual factors and individual differences need to be considered to understand how SA contributes to pragmatic learning. Most of the studies which have explored the effects of SA on pragmatic learning have focused on young and older adults (see Sánchez-Hernández, 2022); however, very few studies have focused on children (e.g. Achiba, 2003; Alcón-Soler, 2015; Ellis, 1992) despite the multiple calls to conduct research with this population (Llanes, 2020; Isabelli-García et al., 2018).

        The present study addresses this research gap by exploring how young English as a foreign language (L2) learners learn pragmatic markers (PMs) in two learning contexts: stay abroad (SA) and at home (AH). This pragmatic feature has been considered difficult to acquire (Ament et al., 2018), since they differ from one language to another), and in order to be able to use them, learners not only need to be pragmalinguistically competent (knowing the linguistic forms) but also sociopragmatically (knowing when and how to use them).

        More particularly, the main objective of the study is to examine whether the type of context has an effect on the frequency of use of textual and interpersonal PMs in oral performance. The participants of the present study are 34 Catalan/Spanish girls (11 to 13 years old) of a single-sex private school in the area of Barcelona (Spain), learning English in two different contexts, AH (n= 16) and SA (n= 18). The SA group participated in a two-month SA program in Ireland where they lived with local host families. In order to test pragmatic development, the use of PMs was prompted through pre-test and post-test semi-structured interviews enquiring about the students’ biographical information and the students’ plans for the future.

        Regarding PM frequency, the results of the study revealed no statistically significant differences from pre- to post-test for any of the groups.  As for PM type, it was found that participants in the AH group did not change significantly the use of any specific PM, whereas their SA counterparts used significantly more the PM ‘then’ (p= .038). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the type of PM used, but the use of ‘then’ was approaching significance in favor of the SA group. Hence, the study sheds more light on the complexity entailed in the phenomenon of L2 pragmatic development during SA.

ID 04 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Michał B. Paradowski (Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw), Piotr Bródka (Wrocław University of Science and Technology), Michał Czuba (Wrocław University of Science and Technology  )
  • Title- Peer interactions and second language gains during three-month education abroad: Harnessing insights from dynamic computational social network analysis
  • Abstract

Target-language (TL, L2) gains are often listed as the primary outcomes and goals of international student mobility. The experience of potential immersion in an L2-speaking community coupled with the opportunity of engaging in meaningful communication are commonly believed to be conducive to accelerated progress. However, despite “folk beliefs” that mere presence in an L2-speaking country will automatically facilitate language acquisition virtually through osmosis, not all learners benefit equally from study-abroad sojourns, and considerable variation has been evinced in their linguistic attainment.

One line of enquiry that has attempted to explain the varied picture has investigated students’ social networks as a factor conditioning their interactions and—subsequently—progress. However, most of the extant studies have i) focused on sojourners’ interactions with native speakers of the TL, passing over their communication with other interactants (despite the fact that these conversations oftentimes constitute the majority of their linguistic experience) ii) only investigating participants’ egocentric networks (asking students to nominate the persons they talked to, but without gaining respective insight from the nominated alters), iii) if at all, used solely global metrics of the networks extracted, and iv) only measured presojourn proficiency and one-shot post-stay gains.

This contribution analyses the longitudinal development of the social interaction network and its influence on L2 gains of 41 U.S. sojourners enrolled in a 3-month intensive study abroad Arabic program. Unlike extant research, the current study i) focuses on students’ interactions with their alma mater classmates (which constitutes between 53 and 59% of their total communication) as well as other agents ii) reconstructing their complete, iii) tracing the impact of each individual student’s position in the social graph using centrality metrics, and iv) includes a dynamic developmental perspective with three measurement points at 4-week intervals each, gauging the extent to which changes in the interaction networks translate to changes in progress along a range of dimensions.

The learners formed mostly same-gender cliques changing minimally, with gender homophily strengthening over time. Closeness centrality significantly correlated with TL use and self-perceived gains in linguistic and cultural competence, suggesting communication with classmates might facilitate L2 use and development, especially in the domain of pragmatics. The best peer-connected students tended to be highly motivated females with high starting L2 proficiency. Interaction with classmates aligned with initial Arabic proficiency and multilingualism. Motivation to learn Arabic, degree of multilingualism, more central and popular positioning in the network, and self-reported progress across most skills were positively correlated. The level of motivation itself in turn seemingly may have been predetermined by prior competence in FLs. The strongest predictors of objective global proficiency gains, measured with the Oral Proficiency Interview, were the degree of multilingualism and closeness to classmates (𝘍 = 3.386, 𝘱 = .0045, predicting 12.4% of variance). We also discuss non-trivial changes in the interaction network and progress over time.

The approach contributes novel methodology and rigorous insights into the dynamics of study-abroad SLA, with the finding offering tangible recommendations for study-abroad program stakeholders.

ID 05 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Andrzej Jarynowski (Freie Universität Berlin), Karolina Czopek (Institute of English Studies, University of Warsaw), Michał B. Paradowski (Institute of Applied Linguistics, University of Warsaw )
  • Title-Ukrainian refugees learning Polish: Language background, affective factors, and social networks
  • Abstract

Much attention in study-abroad SLA research has been paid to short-term sojourns—with the bulk of the literature focusing on one- or two-semester stays—and students’ contacts with native speakers of the target language. Significantly less attention has been devoted to heavily intensive language courses spanning several weeks, to students’ interactions with non-TL speakers, and to scenarios where the TL is typologically related to and intercomprehensible with the learners’ L1.

Since the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022, over 16.9m refugees crossed the country’s border into Poland. We investigate peer learner networks of 251 participants in an intensive course of the Polish language dedicated to the newcomer population. Apart from the special situational context, together with the close typological similarity between the languages spoken and being acquired, the students present a unique language constellation profile, with most being functionally bilingual in Ukrainian and Russian, but with different degrees of dominance in each language and complicated attitudes to the latter.

While dominance in Ukrainian vs Russian did not affect progress in the TL, L1 Ukrainian correlated with centrality in the contact network. Russian speakers often concealed their L1 use, with 62% of the users of this language in the private sphere declaring Ukrainian as their L1. A reconstruction of the student networks shows higher weighted degree centrality among students declaring Ukrainian as their L1, while L1 Russian speakers are often at the network periphery, suggesting linguistic segregation with symptoms of marginalization. The most influential significant predictors of self-perceived progress overall and in grammar were level of course enjoyment and two social network measures: the degree of being indicated as interlocutors by well-connected students (pagerank) and degree of interaction with Russian-speaking friends. Objectively measured progress, however, instead hugely negatively correlated with length of residence in Poland.

ID 06 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Clare Wright (University of Leeds, UK), Ying Peng (University of Leeds), Chen Yang (University of Leeds)
  • Title-“Happy to chat, but far from perfect”: student experiences of Chinese language learning after a Virtual Year Abroad
  • Abstract

This study addresses the impact of a Virtual Year Abroad on communicative effectiveness and implications for future research and planning for Residence Abroad (RA) in the new digital metaverse. The nature of digitally-mediated language learning raises many issues about learners’ responses to multimedia learning environments, and how communicative effectiveness develops with or without full immersion (author). There are also wider implications for students’ sense of identity as competent plurilingual and pluricultural speakers after engaging in digital learning, e.g. how far students may remain in a home language digital “bubble” rather than maximise target language opportunities available online. We report here on a longitudinal mixed-methods project tracking a cohort of anglophone students on a Chinese degree programme in the UK, whose experiences of year abroad were disrupted by COVID-19, to explore if the lack of actual immersion and experiences of digitally-mediated teaching affected their linguistic abilities and plurilingual identity in the post-pandemic era. Informed by current models of L2 speech and interaction (e.g. Peltonen, 2020; Sun & Zhang, 2023), we recorded participants’ speech in monologue and dialogue tasks recorded one year apart (a few months post-RA, and then at the end of their degree), which was compared to a baseline of student performance after standard RA. We then interviewed a sub-set of six students on their experiences during and after their virtual year abroad, adapting the Language Engagement Questionnaire from Mitchell et al., (2017). Using software tools (CLAN and PRAAT) we measured speech for temporal fluency, lexical diversity and syntactic complexity, adding a novel variable for discourse fluency in the dialogic task by including frequency and range of cohesive devices and stance markers. Quantitative analyses of the oral data suggests that across the group, linguistic improvements in lexicogrammatical diversity and complexity without immersion were very similar to outcomes after standard YA (in line with other research, e.g. Peterson, 2021), although with less clear evidence of improvements in discourse fluency. Using emergent thematic analysis from the interviews, the qualitative evidence was more mixed: while some felt they had progressed in their language, particularly if they had engaged substantially with online provision, all expressed negative effects on their sense of identity as Chinese language users, struggling to build interactional confidence, feeling underskilled in intercultural competence, and lacking motivation to maintain the language after graduation. Although small-scale, our study aims to add to research into YA in contemporary contexts, and to inform strategic discussions for teachers, students and institution professionals around possible challenges, opportunities and solutions for what Residence Abroad may become in future.

ID 09 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Meg Malone (ACTFL), Caroline Favero (ACTFL)
  • Title- Improving proficiency descriptors in the 21st century: Incorporating diversity, equity, and inclusion
  • Abstract

Developing language proficiency descriptors is challenging, as developers must ensure that the descriptors show a logical and research-based progression both vertically, among levels, and horizontally, within sublevels of the scale (Berger, 2020). Revising existing descriptors presents challenges, because changes must be clear, consistent, and communicated to the field comprehensibly and comprehensively. Moreover, to ensure the scales meet standards for diversity, equity, and inclusion, descriptors must be examined to consider the needs of general and specific audiences to maximize their accessibility across groups, as well as their reliability and validity in operational use (Grapin & Lee, 2022). Such tests are frequently used in studies of language gain in study abroad (DiSilvio, Diao & Donovan 2016; Hernandez, 2010; Vande Berg, Paige & Connor-Linton, 2009).

This paper describes a process to review and make suggestions for revision for an international language proficiency scale used across multiple languages, contexts, and countries, as well as describes the considerations used in both the review process and change-making procedures. First, we describe the origins of this multi-language scale, used across the world as the basis for 15 different large-scale tests administered in over 50 languages. Next, we outline the iterative and collaborative process of reviewing the scale for fidelity to research, language teacher preparation, on-going development, and consistency with its current use. We also discuss the multi-phase approach to reviewing the revised descriptors both vertically (across levels) and horizontally (within levels and across sublevels) for consistency. The underlying purpose is to examine the existing descriptors for clarity and accessibility for the diverse audiences who use the scale. The revision process included individual reviews and focus groups (N=20) with language, DEI, teacher education, testing and rater training experts to identify areas to clarify and improve, as well as surveys (N=300) and focus groups (N=100) with language teachers and administrators.

The paper will focus not only on the results but on the iterative review process and inclusion of stakeholders via different methods to optimize input and ways that they can be applied in study abroad contexts.

Berger, A. (2020). Specifying progression in academic speaking: A keyword analysis of CEFR-based proficiency descriptors. Language Assessment Quarterly, 17(1), 85-99.

Grapin, S. E., & Lee, O. (2022). WIDA English language development standards framework, 2020 edition: Key shifts and emerging tensions. TESOL Quarterly, 56(2), 827-839.

ID 13 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Kristen Kennedy Terry (Sam Houston State University), Robert Bayley (University of California, Davis)
  • Title- Quantitative social network analysis: a critical tool for understanding language acquisition during study abroad
  • Abstract

In this paper, we discuss the critical contributions of quantitative social network analysis (SNA) to the field of second language (L2) acquisition during study abroad. We examine multiple social network metrics and scales and evaluate their ability to predict a diverse set of linguistic outcomes, including the L2 acquisition of lexical complexity, grammatical accuracy and oral fluency, and regional and sociolinguistic variation. Drawing our own research applying quantitative SNA to the acquisition of L2 French and L2 Spanish during study abroad, as well as the results of other scholars in this growing line of inquiry (authors, 2024), we highlight the capacity of quantitative SNA to reveal what learners actually do when they study, work, or volunteer abroad and how these actions and interactions, with both target-language (TL) speakers and co-nationals, facilitate or hinder language acquisition. Additionally, we consider the limitations of quantitative SNA and the benefits of incorporating qualitative approaches, such as those used in studies of L2 socialization, to better understand the impact of social networks on L2 acquisition during study abroad.

Quantitative assessments of learners’ social networks during study abroad generally employ one of two approaches: 1) an analysis of the learner’s network using a variety of well-known metrics, such as network size and density, or 2) a global calculation of the learner’s overall network strength based on a pre-defined social network strength scale (Milroy & Milroy, 1978). Both seek to characterize learners’ social networks with TL speakers, and with others, based on factors such as the number of TL speakers in the network, the amount of time spent with or frequency of interactions with TL speakers and co-nationals, the number of connections between network members, and the number of different groups within the overall network. These network measures are compared to those of other learners and to other factors potentially contributing to L2 acquisition, such as time in the TL community or previous experience with the TL, and then correlated with specific aspects of L2 development. A growing body of research demonstrates that quantitative SNA is uniquely positioned among other criteria related to learning conditions and individual differences to predict the course of L2 development during study abroad in the following areas: lexical complexity (McManus, 2019), grammatical accuracy and fluency (Paradowski et al., 2021; Smemoe et al., 2014), and regional and sociolinguistic variation (Gautier & Chevrot, 2015; Kennedy Terry, 2022; Li et al., 2021; Pozzi, 2021). Additionally, results demonstrate that social networks with TL speakers do not predict all aspects of L2 development equally (Gautier & Chevrot, 2015; Kennedy Terry, 2022; McManus, 2019; Paradowski et al., 2021) – certain L2 features may be acquired regardless of social network strength while others depend on a combination of strong social networks, contextual factors (e.g., time in the TL community), and individual learner characteristics such as a positive attitude toward the TL culture or a motivation to learn the specific TL variety used by the local community.

ID 16 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Zeynep Köylü (University of Basel), Betül Bulut Sahin (iMiddle East Technical University)
  • Title- Shaping your stay abroad: Individual and contextual differences
  • Abstract

It has long been debated that linguistic, personal, and sociocultural gains after studying abroad are entitled to several individual difference (ID) variables (Hessel, 2017), such as cognition (Segalowitz & Freed, 2004), motivation (Hernández, 2010), and personality (Baker-Smemoe et al., 2014). However, there is a dearth of studies looking into the effects of multiple ID variables, such as personality and emotional stability on intercultural competence and social and cultural adaptation of sojourners resulting in increased interaction and hence language gains.

This study aims to investigate the predictive power of multicultural personality, mental well-being, and self-perceived language proficiency on actual L2 development and sociocultural adjustment of a group of Turkish L1 sojourners learning English as an L2 (n = 96) who spent a semester abroad. It also analyzes the role of cultural proximity by comparing participant development by the host location, such as Central and Eastern European and Mediterranean countries. The data analyzed collected twice at pre-departure and post-sojourn utilizing online versions of the short form of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire (Van Oudenhoven & Van der Zee, 2013), the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (Tennant et al., 2007) and the Socio-cultural Adaptation Scale (Ward & Kennedy, 1999). We also collected data concerning self-perceived proficiency and actual English proficiency scores using the Oxford Quick Placement Test accompanied by a short background questionnaire asking for demographic information and self-rated pre-departure and post-sojourn proficiency in English. All the ID-variable instruments were administered in participants’ L1s. The data from the ID instruments were analyzed through a series of regression models to determine to predict participant sojourners’ sociocultural adaptation and language gains. The preliminary results suggest that initial proficiency in English, mental wellbeing at pre-departure and also host country destination are strong predictors of sociocultural adaptation, increased interaction, and significant language gains after a semester abroad.

ID 17 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Carmen Pérez-Vidal (University of Pompeu Fabra), Zeynep Köylü (University of Basel)
  • Title- Formulaicity and lexical complexity development in SA: The case of SALA
  • Abstract

L2 learners struggle to learn how to combine words in authentic, native-like ways on the way to proficiency. When it comes to this challenging aspect of L2 development, learners might benefit from meaningful authentic input to develop their uses of formulaic expressions. Operationalizing formulaicity as conventionalized ways of saying things (Smiskova-Gustafsson et al., 2012), this study asserts that learning contexts are a crucial part of the picture as some are deprived of authentic input, while some others provide a wealth of examples, such as the study abroad context.

Taking a dynamic usage-based perspective to L2 development (Verspoor & Behrens, 2011), this study investigates how the study abroad context interplays with formulaicity and lexical complexity development. Assuming that input and meaningful interaction are key components of SLD, this study also aims to explore the learning trajectories of a group of sojourners as to lexical diversity, variation, sophistication, and formulaicity. The researchers analyzed written performance data in the form of weekly diary entries, as part of a larger project (Pérez-Vidal, 2014). The participants are 26 Catalan/Spanish tertiary level English learners who studied abroad in an Anglophone country for 14-17 weeks. The SALA diary corpus is compiled of a total of 383 weekly diary entries (~250K words) about sojourners’ experiences related to language use, interaction, and host culture over the course of their stay abroad. The dataset was coded for various measures of lexical complexity (lexical density, sophistication, and diversity) using automated tools. To determine how formulaic each weekly entry was, the dataset was also analyzed through IdiomSearch (Colson, 2016) for multi-word constructions and by human raters for holistic-formulaicity. The results of the generalized additive mixed models showed that sojourners made significant gains towards holistic-formulaicity but using less diverse words and fewer multi-word constructions per tokens, suggesting a discrepancy between automated and human ratings.


Colson, JP. (2017). The IdiomSearch experiment: Extracting phraseology from a probabilistic network of constructions. In: Mitkov, R. (Ed), Computational and Corpus-Based Phraseology. EUROPHRAS 2017 Proceedings. Springer: Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69805-2_2.

Pérez-Vidal, C., & Barquin, E. (2014). Comparing progress in writing after formal instruction and study abroad. In C. Pérez-Vidal (Ed.), Language acquisition in study abroad and formal instruction contexts (pp. 217–234). Amsterdam: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/aals.13

Smiskova-Gustafsson, H., Verspoor, M., & Lowie, W. (2012). Conventionalized ways of saying things (CWOSTs) and L2 development. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(1), 125-142.

Verspoor, M.H., & Behrens, H. (2011). Dynamic systems theory and a usage-based approach to second language development. In M. H. Verspoor, K. de Bot, & W. Lowie (Eds.), A dynamic approach to second language development (pp. 25-38). Philadelphia: John Benjamins. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.29

ID 19 (Language Development Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Esha Mukherjee (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Impact of Arabic dialect integration in L2 classrooms on the development of sociolinguistic competence during study abroad
  • Abstract

Despite Arabic’s diglossic status, Teaching Arabic as a Foreign Language (TAFL) pedagogy has historically privileged Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) rather than dialectal Arabic. Students must usually study abroad in an immersive context to acquire dialectal Arabic and develop sociolinguistic competence, or the comprehension and production of speech that is ‘contextually appropriate’ (Nassif & Shapiro, 2023). Several studies have found that Arabic L2 learners greatly increase their sociolinguistic competence during study abroad (Al Masaeed, 2022; Shiri, 2015; Trentman, 2017). However, scholars have recently modeled and promoted integrated approaches in the Arabic as a foreign language (AFL) classroom, combining MSA and dialectal Arabic instruction in one course (Al-Batal, 2018; Younes, 2018). Scholars have found that Arabic L2 learners have high sociolinguistic competence when instructed in an integrated classroom (Nassif, 2018, 2021). Yet no study to date, to the best of my knowledge, has looked at how integrated instruction transfers to study abroad, and how these dialect-learning contexts (classroom, study abroad) may compound each other and help students achieve better sociolinguistic competence outcomes. The present project contributes to this knowledge by looking into the impact of integrated AFL classrooms in facilitating the acquisition of dialectal Jordanian Arabic during subsequent immersive study abroad experiences.

Participants included four Arabic L2 learners with differing experiences of integrated pedagogy in the classroom (or lack thereof) but similar experiences of studying abroad in Jordan. They were asked to fill out a short questionnaire about their Arabic-learning history; they were also asked to self-report their proficiency in MSA and dialectal Arabic; and they participated in semi-structured interviews that elicited rich information on their experiences, attitudes, motivations, and other metalinguistic commentary on their language abilities and learning journey in the classroom and their sojourn. Participants were also asked to orally translate ten sentences from Arabic to English. These translations were coded for dialectal features including lexical items, and morphosyntactic and phonological features.

Overall, integrated approaches in the AFL classroom were found to facilitate the acquisition of dialectal Arabic during study abroad. Specifically, participants who had learned Arabic in integrated classrooms displayed relatively higher sociolinguistic competence on the oral translation task than those with experiences of only MSA instruction. Once they studied abroad in an immersive context, the learners exposed to MSA-plus-CA pedagogies also recounted in their interviews several ways in which they thought they had benefitted from integrated approaches in the classroom. The two findings lend support to the contention by many Arabic language educators that dialect instruction must be integrated with MSA instruction (Al-Batal, 2018) when the goal of AFL classroom instruction is to foster sociolinguistic competence for actual communication. These results will be discussed and their pedagogical implications for the AFL classroom highlighted. The study offers evidence of the importance of integrated instruction as TAFL methods continue to develop and equip students with the full breadth of communicative competencies in the context of Arabic diglossia.

ID 20 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Inigo Yanguass (University of San Diego), Luis Cerezo (American University)
  • Title- Exploring the Influence of Virtual Guided Conversations on L2 Speaking Skills, Motivation, and Their Viability as Substitutes for Study Abroad Experiences
  • Abstract

Study abroad experiences have been found to aid students develop their interlanguage and intercultural competences in a number of ways (Sanz & Morales-Front, 2018). However, they are frequently considered a luxury for learners from less privileged backgrounds. In this context, proliferating third-party services like Linguameeting, Talkabroad, or Conversifi, which offer guided videoconferencing sessions with native speaker coaches, have emerged as a more accessible, viable alternative (Soler Montes & Juan-Lázaro, forthcoming). Nonetheless, the potential benefits of these services are only now starting to be assessed (e.g., Sama & Wu, 2019; Marull & Kumar, 2020).

To fill this gap, the present study investigates the effectiveness of one of these programs (Linguameeting) in enhancing L2 learners’ oral skills and motivation, while tapping into their perceptions towards this program and its capacity to deliver meaningful cultural experiences. Following a longitudinal, quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest design, two intact classes of college-level intermediate Spanish students participated in this study. In one of the classes, student dyads met with native-speaking coaches from Linguameeting to participate in biweekly guided conversations related to course topics. The other class acted as a control group and followed the standard curriculum. Oral proficiency development was assessed through the Elicited Imitation Task (Ortega, 2000). Students also responded to the ABM Attitudes and Motivation Questionnaire (Perez-Vidal, 2014) to assess their motivation and attitudes. Both tests were administered at the beginning and end of the semester. The ongoing analysis of the data will reveal whether students in the LinguaMeeting group experienced significant changes in their L2 oral skills and motivation levels compared to the control group. This study will thus be informative to teachers and program administrators about the potential benefits of using these virtual conversation platforms to complement standard curricula and offer some of the benefits of SA programs.

ID 23 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Jingyuan Zhuang (The Pennsylvania State University), Celeste Kinginger (The Pennsylvania State University)
  • Title- Principled integration in mixed methods research on study abroad: Developing a life history typology from a survey to guide interview sampling
  • Abstract

The use of multiple methods has been characteristic of research on study abroad (SA) from the beginning and has consistently made impactful contributions. However, the principled integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches, which lies at the heart of mixed methods research (Bazeley, 2018; Creswell, 2015; Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2010), is as yet somewhat rare in the literature of study abroad and in applied linguistics (Riazi & Candlin, 2014). In this presentation, we will discuss integration in terms of points of interface (Morse & Niehaus, 2009), and will demonstrate integration at one particular interface between methods in our sequential explanatory mixed methods project: the development of a participant typology from a quantitative survey to inform the sampling of participants for qualitative interviews. The challenge was to systematically select a subsample of around 50 participants out of a large pool of survey respondents (2741 out of 4899 agreed to be interviewed), in order to interview as wide and representative range of survey participants as possible. We will first explain how we operationalized SA participants’ life pathways based on the survey items, then briefly introduce Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA), and finally describe how we applied MCA to our project.

There were two central constructs in capturing SA participants’ life pathways. One was participants’ past, which was operationalized using two items from the survey about their SA experience (their primary reason for SA; the duration of their first SA program). The other construct was participants’ present, or their current position in life. Specifically, we selected three sets of questions from the survey: (a) their current second language use, with items about types of activities and categories of interlocutors; (b) their current employment, with items about the type of organization, the general work sector, and their position at work; and (c) their cultural capital, with items about the admission rate of their undergraduate institution and the highest degree they attained. Importantly, we analyzed these two constructs separately for each age group, rather than for the entire sample as a whole, considering age-cohort and generational differences.

Since most of our survey items generated categorical data, we chose Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA; Greenacre & Blasius, 2006), which is a multivariate exploratory statistical technique that analyzes the pattern of relationships among several categorical variables based on associational frequency. We conducted two MCAs within each of the seven age groups, with the first MCA capturing participants’ present and the second MCA capturing their past, in the following steps. First, sets of variables were cross tabulated in large contingency tables, from which MCA was used to construct two related maps: a modalities map showing the associations between variables, and an individuals map showing associations between participants based on their relations to the variables. Then, by overlapping the modalities map with the individuals map, we identified different groups of participants and constructed a typology. Finally, we randomly sampled participants from each quadrant of the combined MCA map.

ID 24 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Tatiana Artamonava (Sam Houston State University), Lori Czerwionka (Purdue University), Taryn McDowell (Purdue University)
  • Title- Language and culture learning in study abroad: An analysis of host and learner strategies in interaction
  • Abstract

Short-term study abroad (SA) programs are the most popular SA option among U.S. college students (Institute of International Education, 2020), but there is ongoing debate regarding their effectiveness in promoting language and culture learning (e.g., Allen & Herron, 2003; Bloom & Miranda, 2015). Furthermore, recent research has highlighted the potential benefits of the homestay environment for learning (e.g., Hernández, 2010; Kinginger, 2009), yet some researchers have questioned the advantages of homestays (Kinginger & Wu, 2018; Tanaka, 2007). Considering that learning is related to the actions of learners (van Lier, 1998) and the amount and quality of interactions with NSs (Wang, 2010), a detailed analysis of learners and host interactions can shed light on what kind of learning takes place in homestays and how this learning occurs.

Adopting the notion of affordances, which are the opportunities for learning provided by the environment (Gibson, 1979; van Lier, 1998; Ziglari, 2012), the current investigation examines language and culture learning in mealtime interactions among second language (L2) learners and their SA hosts in the homestay setting, focusing on the actions taken by learners and hosts. Mealtime interactions were selected for analysis, because prior research suggests that the dinner table is where most L2–NS interactions happen in programs abroad (Diao et. al., 2011). Data were collected during a short-term summer SA program in Madrid, Spain. A total of 13 mealtime conversations among three host families and their students were video-recorded; a total of nine native Spanish speakers and six intermediate to advanced L2 learners of Spanish were observed. All learners were native speakers of English who attended a large, midwestern university in the United States. The qualitative discourse analysis consisted of an iterative process of watching the video-recorded mealtime conversations and identifying moments when L2 learners and NS hosts use strategies (i.e., actions) that lead to the development of multiple learner competencies.

The results indicated that NS host–L2 learner interactions led to L2 learners’ development of linguistic, communicative, and intercultural competences. The NSs utilized the strategies of foreigner-talk, code-switching, and nonverbal cues, while L2 learners employed a wider range of strategies, including direct questions and requests for further explanation, grammar rule recall, home versus host culture contrast, observation, example, and hypothesis testing. These findings that highlight how interlocutors promote learning in interaction are discussed in light of prior research, and we consider their implications for SA program development and for SA participants.  

ID 25 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Majid Aldakheel (University College Cork), Martin Howard (University College Cork)
  • Title- LOTE learning in a study abroad context: The case of Arabic
  • Abstract

This paper adopts a LOTE (languages other than English) lens to the relationship between language learning and study abroad against the backdrop of an extensive literature which is dominated by studies of English as a second language (L2). As researchers such as Oakes and Howard (2022) note, however, there is a critical need to explore second language acquisition (SLA) constructs and theories among LOTE learners whose L2 may reflect issues which are not necessarily the same as those underpinning the learning of English as the global lingua franca of our times.

While studies of other LOTEs exist, primarily of Chinese, French and Spanish, reflecting its significant underrepresentation in the literature, this study focuses on the learning of Arabic among university learners of different source languages during a sojourn in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on longitudinal spoken data collection with 20 participants at two time intervals over the course of three months. As a means of illuminating the specificity of their experiences of study abroad in a non-western context, qualitative thematic analysis was applied to the data. The analysis sought in particular to explore the learners’ motivation for learning Arabic, engagement in opportunities for language contact, interaction and socialisation, as well as their overall experience of study abroad and its contribution to their learning of Arabic in a different socio-cultural context to that primarily explored in the extant literature. The findings are presented in terms of a comparison between the two data collection times as a means of tracking changes in the learners’ learning trajectory while abroad and motivational, socio-contextual, and experiential factors shaping those changes. If LOTE learning calls for a more nuanced understanding of theoretical and applied premises and concepts in study abroad and SLA more generally, the paper concludes by considering the specificity of the findings to Arabic and Saudi Arabia as a study abroad context in relation to findings emanating from studies of English and other LOTEs.

ID 32 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Perla Escobar-Faerber
  • Title- Spanish Heritage Language Speakers Studying Abroad: Language Use and Social Networks
  • Abstract

The Institute of International Education (2020) shows that Hispanic students represent 10.9% of students studying abroad. This surge of Hispanic students in higher education and their growing participation in study abroad (SA) programs calls for an expanded research focus on their experiences. Grounded in the qualitative nuances of language learning and the intricate process of social integration within “communities of practice” (Lave & Wenger, 1991), this study delves into language use and the development of social networks among Spanish heritage language (SHL) speakers during their SA programs.

The tapestry of SHL speakers in the U.S. is woven with varied linguistic backgrounds and proficiencies, presenting a spectrum of individual linguistic narratives (Valdés, 1997; Beaudrie & Fairclough, 2012). Previous research has highlighted SHL speakers’ motivations, language development, identity construction, and the challenges faced in SA programs (e.g., Petrucci, 2007; Quan, 2021; Riegelhaupt & Carrasco, 2010). However, less explored are the social networks and community integration of these individuals while abroad, which are crucial for language choice (Goffman, 1972; Milroy, 1980). Thus, the present qualitative study examines the following research questions:

1. How do SHL speakers studying abroad feel and interact in SA social contexts?

1a. In which contexts do SHL speakers use Spanish, and why?

1b. Do SHL speakers integrate themselves into the local community, and what factors foster or inhibit this integration?

2. How does the program structure influence SHL students’ use of Spanish and their social integration within the local community?

With the intent of aligning with the need to capture the nuanced experiences of heritage speakers (Dewey, 2017; Shively, 2018), this study involved a detailed background questionnaire and interviews. Data were collected from five participants from a midwest university who participated in two different programs (Alcalá de Henares and Merida, Mexico). Preliminary results show that participants generally felt welcome and formed genuine relationships within local communities. Their use of Spanish varied across contexts, with a significant portion of Spanish use in daily transactions, classroom settings, and with local friends. Key factors influencing social integration included language proficiency and identity reinforcement. Social networks played a pivotal role in language use patterns, with more robust Spanish networks fostering greater Spanish use and local integration. The structure of SA programs affected these dynamics, with greater opportunities to participate in Spanish-speaking communities; nevertheless, participants shared insights of what SA programs can do to aid Spanish language development and use. This study considers the importance of social networks and program structures in shaping the study abroad experiences of SHL speakers. Pedagogical implications suggest that SA programs should facilitate interactions with local communities and provide structures that encourage language use and cultural immersion, ultimately enhancing the educational journey of SHL speakers.

ID 33 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Sylvia Önder (Georgetown University), Kadir Gökgöz (Boğaziçi University), Ceyda Aslan Ketchriotis (Boğaziçi University ), Özge Bakay (University of Massachusetts), Büşra Marşan (Stanford University)
  • Title- Summer Language Gains and Community Building at Boğaziçi University’s Immersive Turkish Language and Culture Program
  • Abstract

This paper aims to analyze new types of testing and evaluation data stemming from a long-term collaboration between Boğaziçi University’s Summer Turkish Language and Culture Program (TLCP) and ARIT, the American Research Institute in Turkey’s Fulbright-Hays Group Projects Abroad Summer Fellowships for Advanced Turkish.  The BU TLCP has been in operation since 1982, and the ARIT-BU Fellowships have been supported by U.S. Department of Education funding since then.  Because there are very few programs in the U.S. that can sustain Turkish language courses propelling students through the Advanced level, the BU TLCP has been the main pathway to Advanced Turkish Language acquisition for undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty with US citizenship or Permanent Resident status.  The program was cancelled due to COIVD in the summer of 2020 and ran online in the summer of 2021 with a double-sized group.  Between 2019 and 2023, the ARIT-BU Fellowship funded 78 individuals from 40 institutions of higher education.  Pre- and Post-program testing data and quantitative post-program evaluations, from the years 2019, 2021, 2022, and 2023, conducted by both TLCP and ARIT will be compared for this paper.  The qualitative data will be used to examine aspects of community-building during the program.  Our motivation for this comparison has had several aspects: we want to demonstrate the language gains made possible by this immersive summer program (for which we can compare with the data from the online summer); we want to see how our tests compared in terms of showing language gains over the course of the program; we want to see if we need to change or adapt our testing protocols; and we want to understand if we should somehow combine or parcel out testing to reduce the overall number of tests that each participant undergoes.  This paper will mostly address the theme of “Language Development in Immersive Contexts Abroad” but we would also be happy to discuss our “Program Design and Administration” and whether this program has led to “Responsible Global Citizenship.”

ID 35 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Jessica Kotfila (Georgetown University ), Heidi Getz (Georgetown University), Elissa Newport (Georgetown University)
  • Title-The Acquisition of Word Order: From Strings to Sentences
  • Abstract

Syntactic movement is central to mainstream generative theories of syntax (Chomsky, 1957; Chomsky, 1981; Chomsky 1995, Chomsky, 2001). Under this view, sentences contain words or phrases that have been moved, internally merged (Chomsky 2001), and words or phrases that have not been moved, externally merged. Children only ever hear words in their moved positions so it is unclear how, on the basis of their input, the child could determine the ways syntactic constituents must be merged and moved in their language. Learners may be able to solve this puzzle because movement in natural languages is constrained in principled ways (Ross, 1967; Travis, 1948; Emonds, 1976; Rizzi, 1990; Chomsky, 1995; Chomsky, 2001). These constraints limit the possible permutations of words and phrases in sentences and create meaningful patterns across sentences of different types. This narrows the hypothesis space for learners, allowing them to determine which words or phrases have moved and which have not.

Previous research has shown that learners are sensitive to the distributional patterns in their input and can use these patterns to acquire aspects of their grammar (Saffran, Aslin, and Newport, 1996; Thompson and Newport 2007; Reeder et al. 2013). Studies have also shown that properties of natural languages lead to better learning of artificial grammars (Culbertson and Newport, 2017; Thompson and Newport, 2007; Getz and Newport, 2019; Fetch, 2020). We hypothesized that movement constraints found in natural languages would lead to better learning of word order. To test this hypothesis, we exposed adult learners to two miniature artificial grammars. These grammars were identical except that one grammar, the constrained movement language, obeyed movement constraints found in natural languages (e.g. Empty Category Principle, The Extension Condition, etc.) and the other, control language, did not.

40 adults were exposed to a representative subset of the possible sentences from either grammar. The sentences were presented auditorily over five sessions that lasted approximately 30 minutes each. Sessions were completed on separate days with no more than 48 hours between them. Following the last session, participants completed three two-alternative forced choice tasks designed to test their knowledge of phrase structure, sentence structure, and movement operations in their grammar.

Our results suggest learners acquired phrase structure of both grammars with no significant difference between the two groups on the phrase test (t(38) = 0.32, p = 0.375). Learners exposed to the constrained movement grammar were significantly better than learners exposed to the control grammar at detecting word order violations on the sentence test (t(38) = 2.53, p = 0.008). Only learners exposed to the constrained movement grammar performed significantly above chance (t(19) = 6.24, p < 0.001) on the movement task, suggesting that they acquired the movement constraints of their grammar. We argue that movement constraints lead to better learning of word order because of how they influence the distributional cues in the input in a meaningful way. The distributional cues to phrase structure were identical for both grammars, but the distributional cues at the sentence level were different. Learning mirrored these differences.

ID 37 (Language Development Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Sybille Heinzmann (University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland)
  • Title- Student exchange in primary and secondary education and its effect on language gains and intercultural competence: What we do (not) know
  • Abstract

This contribution offers a systematic review of European research on the effectiveness of student exchange during primary and secondary school for linguistic and intercultural development. 

Complementary to regular foreign language instruction, student exchange programs (longer and shorter ones) offer an opportunity for immersion in the target language and culture. At the tertiary level, mobility programs are often an integral part of the curriculum. At primary and secondary level, they are less common and less institutionalized but still a regular phenomenon at least in Europe.

Meanwhile, there are a number of state-of-the art articles and literature reviews dealing with student mobility (Borràs & Llanes, 2021, Isabelli-García et al., 2018, Llanes, 2011; Tseng et al., 2021 and Yang, 2016; Roy et al., 2019). What is common to all these reviews is that most of the treated literature focuses on tertiary level education, thus involving university students. Younger learners are only marginally considered. To date only the review by Borràs and Llanes (2021) and the meta-analysis of Tseng et al. (2021) include studies involving participants at primary or secondary school level and these studies clearly represent a small portion of the covered literature. If we are, however, interested in the effects of SA more holistically and long-term or for different age groups, we must also investigate SA programs and formats at lower educational levels.

The review presented in this contribution specifically targets the underresearched population of primary and secondary students. Unlike previous reviews, it includes literature in languages other than English (German and French in addition to English) as well as gray/fugitive literature in order to prevent a publication bias. In my contribution I will first outline the study selection criteria, search process and coding procedure employed for the review. Then I will present systematized findings on how effective student exchange is in primary and secondary schools with respect to the development of language and intercultural competencies. The contribution will conclude with an identification of research gaps and directions for future research.

Borràs, J., & Llanes, À. (2021). Re-examining the impact of study abroad on L2 development: A critical overview. The Language Learning Journal, 49(5), 527-540. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2019.1642941 

Isabelli-García, C., Bown, J., Plews, J. L., & Dewey, D. P. (2018). Language learning and study abroad. Language Teaching, 51(4), 439-484. 

Llanes, Á. (2011). The many faces of study abroad: An update on the research on L2 gains emerged during a study abroad experience. International Journal of Multilingualism, 8(3), 189-215. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2010.550297 

Roy, A., Newman, A., Ellenberger, T., & Pyman, A. (2019). Outcomes of international student mobility programs: a systematic review and agenda for future research. Studies in higher educa-tion, 44(9), 1630-1644. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2018.1458222 

Tseng, W.-T., Liu, Y.-T., Hsu, Y.-T., & Chu, H.-C. (2021). Revisiting the effectiveness of study abroad language programs: A multi-level meta-analysis. Language Teaching Research https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168820988423

Yang, J.-S. (2016). The effectiveness of study-abroad on second language learning: A meta-analysis. Canadian Modern Language Review, 72(1), 66-94. 

ID 38 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Abbie Finnegans (Georgetown University), Cailie Keating (Georgetown University), Cristina Sanz (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Effects of immersion abroad on L1 speech: How short is short?
  • Abstract

Most research on the effects of immersion on fluency has been concerned with the L2; few studies have examined the impact of L2 immersion on L1 fluency. These studies have primarily focused on long-term L2 exposure -three years or more- and their effects on L1 syntactic processing (Chamorro et al., 2016), word recognition (Frenck-Mestre, 1993), lexical retrieval (Ecke & Hall, 2013), and written production (Hutz, 2004; Jaspaert & Kroon, 1992). Although these studies report negative changes in the L1 system, they also suggest that attrition only occurs over long periods of time (Hutz, 2004). Other studies have focused on college students studying abroad (Baus et al., 2013; Chang, 2012; Jared & Kroll, 2001; Linck et al., 2009), as opposed to immigrants or children who moved to a foreign country. Results from this research suggest that changes to the L1 can occur more rapidly than previously thought (Köpke & Genevska-Hanke, 2018). For example, participants in Baus et al. (2013) completed a picture naming and semantic fluency test before and after immersion; participants’ performance in the picture naming task was slower at the end of their six months stay. Similarly, Linck et al. (2009) found that after only three months, the group in the study abroad context experienced a reduction in lexical retrieval in a verbal fluency task compared to their at-home counterparts. There is evidence then that immersion in an L2 context affects aspects of L1 performance, such as lexical access, relatively quickly; this evidence has been interpreted as suggesting an important role in early L1 attrition for the inhibitory processes that facilitate L2 development (Linck et al., 2009). Because language fluency is dependent on the recency and frequency of language use, it is unsurprising that it fluctuates rapidly with changes in the language environment (Köpke & Genevska-Hanke, 2018). An interesting question then is that of the length of the immersion period that is necessary before its effects can be observed in the learner’s L1.

The present study (N=15) investigates the impact on L1 fluency and syntactic complexity of a 5+week immersion experience abroad. Participants were advanced learners of L2 Spanish who completed nine credits of upper-level coursework and participated in conversation exchanges and fieldwork activities for a minimum of 30-35 hours of weekly contact with native speakers. Students signed an agreement to use only Spanish during the program. Using the speed, repair, and breakdown operationalization of fluency, stemming from Levelt’s (1996) L1 fluency model, the researchers transcribed and coded recordings of participants’ L1 speech collected before and after their immersive experience abroad. Results indicate a significant decline in L1 fluency following immersion, particularly in terms of speed and error correction, but also affirm the preservation of syntactic complexity in the L1. These findings contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of academic immersion abroad and highlight the timing of the potential impact of study abroad on L1 fluency.

ID 39 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Tammy Jandrey Hertel (University of Lynchburg), Abby Dings (Southwestern University)
  • Title-The Study Abroad Experiences of Heritage Spanish Speakers 
  • Abstract

An increasing number of study abroad participants are heritage speakers of Spanish, highlighting the need for more research focusing on the unique characteristics of their experiences. Prior studies in this area have examined topics such as linguistic development, motivations, linguistic discrimination and identity (see Shively 2016 for a research review and Pozzi et al. 2021 for an edited volume). This mixed methods project contributes to previous research by exploring heritage speakers’ reflections on their study abroad experiences. Participants were 42 heritage speakers from the U.S. who studied abroad in Spanish-speaking countries as undergraduates. They completed an online survey that included questions about their study abroad programs, the impact of aspects of the experience (e.g., homestay, home culture cohort, classes), the influence of their heritage speaker status on their experiences, and the impact of their studies abroad on their heritage speaker identity. A subset of the participants (18) later completed a semi-structured video interview to provide a deeper understanding of their experiences.

Results indicated a variety of motivations for studying abroad, perceived growth in confidence in Spanish, and the importance of independent travel and other components of the study abroad experience. The participants’ status as heritage speakers, often in cohorts of primarily non-heritage speakers, had varied impacts on their experiences. While some reported feelings of linguistic discrimination from locals in the host culture, some also reported that the study abroad setting was a less judgmental place to practice their Spanish than in their U.S. homes. The study abroad experience reportedly had a positive impact on the participants’ relationships with their families, and also contributed insights into the complexity of their perceived identities. Participants provided suggestions for encouraging heritage speakers to study abroad and making programs accessible and supportive.

ID 40 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Sinae Lee (Texas A&M University), Bokyung Mun (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Production and perception of Korean back vowels by English L1 speakers
  • Abstract

This study investigates the production and perception of Korean vowels /o/ and /ʌ/ among nonnative speakers of Korean. It has been documented that the task of distinguishing /o/ from /u/ may be challenging for nonnative speakers of Korean (Ryu 2018), the observation of which coincides with the ongoing merger of /o/ and /u/ among native Seoul Koreans (Han & Kang 2013). However, a lesser amount of attention has been paid to /ʌ/, another back vowel that has a higher F1 value than /u/ or /o/. The current study attempts to address this gap by examining how well the Korean learners with English L1 can distinguish /o/ and /ʌ/, both in production and perception. 25 English L1 speakers read five sentences that contain 20 words with /o/ and /ʌ/ vowels, which was audio-recorded. Following this task, they were asked to listen to a recording (made by a native Seoul Korean speaker) of 20 words containing /o/ and/or /ʌ/, and to write down each word as they listened. Out of 20 words they identified, 10 of them were nonwords. The production of these vowels was analyzed acoustically by extracting formant values of vowel tokens, along with duration, following environment, and word context. Whether these two vowels are phonetically distinct was measured by calculating the Pillai score per speaker. The perception of the vowels was analyzed by referring to the percent score of the dictation task. Results show that there is a strong positive correlation between the production accuracy and the perception accuracy (p=0.00039); in other words, the better the learners are at distinctly pronouncing /o/ and /ʌ/, the more successful they would be in differentiating /o/ and /ʌ/ upon listening. It also appears that the most common type of perception error is hearing /o/ as /ʌ/, which accounts for over 50% of all errors. For majority of those who are not as successful in distinguishing /o/ from /ʌ/, their spectral space for /o/ is wider, and less defined than that of /ʌ/. When compared to native Korean speakers, the participants exhibit less distinction in lip rounding between /o/ and /ʌ/ (as indicated by their F3), suggesting their difficulty of processing the articulatory characteristics of the /o/ vowel in Korean. It is also found that their knowledge of vocabulary can interfere with their perception; many nonwords were heard as resembling words that exist in their lexicon. We discuss these findings in relation to the relevant literature on Korean vowels and propose various ways to facilitate the distinction between /o/ and /ʌ/ in Korean L2 classrooms both in perception and in production, thereby contributing to the field of Second Language Teaching.

ID 42 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Lara Bryfonski (Georgetown University), Alison Mackey (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Interaction and Corrective Feedback in Study Abroad: A State-of-the-Art Review
  • Abstract

Do learners make the most of their interactions with native speakers (NSs) while abroad? What kinds of interactions benefit learners the most? What has been done to document the types of interactions learners engage in abroad? While a long history of research has established the benefits of interaction for SLA (Gass, 1997; Gass & Mackey, 2006; Long, 1996) our understanding of the access that study abroad students have to the kinds of interactions known to promote language development is still emerging (Mitchell, 2023). Some prior research has found that learners retain classroom-like discourse patterns, even when interacting in naturalistic settings (e.g., McMeekin, 2006; Shively, 2010; Wilkinson, 2002), while others have found learners benefit from the opportunities to negotiate for meaning and respond to corrective feedback that they encounter while abroad (e.g., Bryfonski & Sanz, 2018; Fernández García & Martínez Arbelaiz, 2007, 2014).

This talk provides a state-of-the-art review of the growing body of research that has examined language learning in study abroad under the interactionist tradition. We first provide a brief overview of the interaction approach to SLA and its links to L2 development. Next, we review research from the last 3 decades that has investigated learners’ interactions in study abroad contexts, and identify patterns associated with L2 outcomes. Throughout, we highlight the features of study abroad contexts, such as homestays and informal conversation groups, that promote key aspects of the interaction approach, including access to input, opportunities for output, modified output, negotiation for meaning, and corrective feedback. We also point out trends in the methods commonly employed by researchers to investigate learners’ interactions abroad.

The results of the review show that learners who interact in various settings, such as homestays, service encounters, or through informal conversation groups, do encounter the kinds of interaction known to be essential for L2 development, but may require instructional interventions to encourage them to engage with NSs (e.g., Kinginger, 2011). We discuss empirical findings that support these kinds of interventions, with a focus on training learners to notice and engage with corrective feedback, and make recommendations for study abroad program administrators. We end with implications of interactionist study abroad research both for the field of SLA and for study abroad practitioners, and suggest future directions for the research of study abroad through the lens of the interaction approach.

ID 43 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Yi Wang(Stony Brook University), Yongjun Zhang (Stony Brook University)
  • Title- Peer Interaction and Language Use in a Multilingual Education Abroad Context
  • Abstract

This study explores peer interaction and cohort networks among students in an education abroad program within a multilingual setting. Traditional research in study abroad has predominantly focused on target language acquisition by students sharing a similar background, often neglecting the inherent multilingualism and the dynamics of peer interactions (e.g., Kinginger, 2013; Diao & Trentman, 2021). This study shifts the focus to an English-medium program in China, designed specifically for international students and incorporating a mandatory Chinese language component. It investigates how students utilize their diverse linguistic repertoires, including English, Chinese, and their native languages, during interactions with peers in an educational setting abroad.

Data were gathered over six months of ethnographic fieldwork, employing interviews, field notes, a social network questionnaire, and classroom observations. Thirty-eight participants from 18 different countries, constituting the entire cohort, were involved in the study, with 30 engaging in monthly interviews with the researcher. To decipher the cohort’s network structure, we delineated three types: speaking, language-specific, and friendship networks. Visualization of the social networks revealed a prominent embedding within the English-speaking network, with only a minority of students utilizing Chinese for intra-cohort interactions. However, ethnographic observations disclosed that students inventively employed various languages for language play and social networking beyond English and Chinese.

Centrality analysis indicated that peer interactions were not uniformly distributed, with only a few students holding central positions within the network. The study delves deeper into these centrally positioned students, offering nuanced insights through field notes. It also examines how network cohesion and constraints influence cohort dynamics. Integrating social network analysis with ethnographic methods, this research presents a comprehensive view of peer interaction, language use, and social networking in the context of education abroad.

ID 44 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Tracy Quan (University of Colorado, Boulder), Jazmina Isordia (San Jose State University), Julia Menard-Warwick (University of California, Davis)
  • Title- Translingual development in a Spanish language classroom in Guatemala
  • Abstract-

Recent research highlights how agentive capacities for complex meaning-making can be developed among language learners during study abroad (SA) (e.g., Diao & Trentman, 2021). In this regard, we focus on students’ translingual development, or their emerging capacity to communicate across sociopolitically-constructed linguistic and cultural borders (Canagarajah, 2013), during a 12-week program for U.S.-university students in Antigua, Guatemala. Drawing on ethnographic data, specifically audio-recordings from a small four-student, intermediate-level, second language (L2) Spanish class, we compare classroom interactions from the beginning and the end of students’ sojourn. Our qualitative findings demonstrate participants’ increasing utilization of diverse semiotic strategies–along with linguistic resources associated with multiple named languages and varieties–to make meaning and further their Spanish learning. In so doing, students and their instructor transformed their classroom into a translanguaging space where their full linguistic repertoires and identities were activated and encouraged (Li, 2018). We further note students’ translingual development in their emerging ability to engage in transcultural reflection and communication as time progressed. As such, this paper argues for the promotion of translingual development in SA and L2 pedagogies.

ID 46 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Meg Montee (Georgetown University), Gatanna Andrade (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Understanding Outcomes for Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship Programs
  • Abstract

Foreign Language and Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship programs represent a major effort from the U.S. Department of Education to increase the number of advanced language speakers through intensive language study opportunities, both at home and through study abroad. With an appropriation of over 31 million dollars annually funding 112 different programs, FLAS programs require a significant investment of time and resources. Ensuring that these programs have appropriate and valid tools for assessing and reporting student outcomes, as well as informing future instruction is essential to: (a) Demonstrate the value of FLAS fellowships, and (b) Measure the impact of FLAS programs relative to the stated goal of increasing the number of highly proficient language users.

We present part of a multi-year research study of FLAS outcomes and present an analysis of 10 years of data from FLAS intensive study programs representing N = 18,675 students and more than 150 different languages. This includes data about student language growth based on scores from a checklist-based speaking proficiency assessment tool administered to all FLAS students by a language instructor. This tool is administered to all students as both a pre- and post-program assessment and reports language proficiency based on the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) Scale.

This presentation will address the following research questions:

1. How have the number of students and languages studied in FLAS programs changed over the past 10 years? 

2. What are student language proficiency outcomes (ILR Levels) by language, program, and year of study? What gains do students make?

3. To what extent does teacher-administered assessment tool effectively assess language proficiency gains from the FLAS fellowship?

The results include descriptive statistics of FLAS program data and language proficiency outcomes as well as an analysis of the assessment tool. The discussion will include implications for assessing, documenting, and reporting language gains in study abroad and other intensive language study contexts, and specifically a consideration of the validity of using instructor-administered assessment tools to capture language gains. Given the significant investment by FLAS programs in their learners, this sort of efficacy and validation research is seriously needed.

ID 47 (Language Development Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Yunjung Yunie Ku (Georgetown University)
  • Title- Study Abroad Sojourners and Working Holidaymakers:  Who Chooses to Go Abroad and Why?
  • Abstract

         Study abroad (SA) programs have been a prevailing option for middle-class Koreans to learn a target language (Abelmann et al., 2014). However, the majority of SA studies have focused on participants from L1 English backgrounds learning foreign languages, or, conversely, on non-Anglophone participants learning English, giving less attention to Koreans learning languages other than English (LOTEs) in an immersion context.

          A phenomenon in Korea that has also received little attention is Working Holiday (WH) tourism, which allows young adults to learn a foreign language while working and traveling in a host country. WH has gained immense popularity among Koreans since the mid-2000s, giving rise to a phenomenon called working holiday yolpung (“hot storm”; Choi, 2023). This term suggests that people’s high enthusiasm for WH is akin to the intensity of a hot storm. However, WH jobs tend to be low-paying and non-academic, making sojourners “modern labour nomads” (Robertson, 2014, p. 1921). Surprisingly, despite their vulnerable positions as temporary migrant workers, little to no applied linguistics research has attempted to gain a comprehensive picture of working holidaymakers’ language learning experiences and their decisions to go abroad.

           With these lacunae in mind and considering the limited research on Korean students in a SA context, the present study investigated the reasons and individual difference factors involved in the decision-making of three groups: Koreans who became SA sojourners, those who became working holidaymakers, and learners remaining in their home countries. These findings are part of a longitudinal study aiming to facilitate fuller interpretations of language learning experiences of these groups in relation to several individual difference factors. In keeping with a multilingual turn in the SA literature (e.g., Diao & Trentman, 2021) and departing from common practices of SA studies, the study included Koreans learning English and also LOTEs.

          The study focuses on two individual difference factors related to reasons for going abroad (or staying at home): international posture and initial proficiency. International posture, a positive attitude toward foreignness in general (Yashima, 2000), is particularly relevant for young adults in Korea, where encounters with foreigners are comparatively low. Pre-departure initial proficiency is also important to consider, as it is known to be a decisive factor affecting learners’ linguistic gains while abroad (e.g., Zalbidea et al., 2021), and may influence decisions about whether the chosen program is desirable. Using a mixed methods approach, data from three sources (questionnaire responses, Elicited Imitation Test scores, and interview data) were collected from 52 Korean young adults and were analyzed through descriptive statistics, ANOVA tests, and a qualitative bottom-up method.         

           The results revealed statistically significant differences in initial proficiency and international posture of the three groups. Qualitative data also supported the contrasting reasons behind their decisions. The implications of these results will be discussed regarding immersion programs that can be tailored to these learner-internal factors. The findings will shed light on underrepresented populations in the field of SLA, which for decades has overrelied on the sampling of “WEIRD” (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) populations (Andringa & Godfroid, 2023).

ID 48 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Irmak Su Tütüncü (Georgia State University), Samantha N. Emerson (Aptima, Inc., Training, Learning, & Readiness Division), Jing Paul (Agnes Scott College), Murat Şengül (Hacı Bektaş Veli University), Şeyda Özçalışkan (Georgia State University)
  • Abstract

The world’s languages follow a tertiary split in their expression of manner and path of motion—with greater expression of manner in satellite-framed languages (e.g., English), path in verb-framed languages (e.g., Turkish), and comparable expression of manner and path in equipollently-framed languages (e.g., Chinese; Slobin, 2004; Talmy, 2000). The cross-linguistic differences in expression influence the nonverbal representation of motion, but this effect is largely evident only when the event is verbalized but not present when not verbalized (i.e., thinking-for-speaking account; Slobin, 1996)—an effect that might be evident in the context of second language learning. In this study, we extend the earlier research to the context of novel word learning. We ask whether speakers of different languages show an effect of their native language when learning novel words that encode manner or path of motion. Given the beneficial effects of gesture on learning in previous work (Goldin-Meadow, 2014), we also ask whether learners who are instructed with gesture learn better than the ones who are instructed only with speech. More specifically, we asked whether learning novel words for two key motion event components (manner, path) would be affected by language type (Chinese, English, Turkish) and modality of instruction (speech-only, gesture+speech) by using a word learning paradigm that did not involve verbalization of the motion event in the speakers’ native language.

Participants included 173 adult speakers, with either Chinese (n = 60, Mage = 19.20), English (n = 53, Mage = 19.00), and Turkish (n = 60, Mage = 20.83) as their native language. Each participant completed a computerized word learning task that consisted of 4 blocks with 8 novel words per block (e.g., chulsu, mernu, norcu,); their performance was assessed at the end of each block in a forced-choice response task. We tallied each participant’s response for both accuracy and for reaction time in each block. We analyzed responses using two sets of mixed ANOVAs with language (Chinese, English, Turkish), motion type (manner, path), and instruction modality (speech-only, gesture+speech) as between subject factors, and learning (4 blocks) as a within subject factor.

Our results showed an effect of language (p<.001), with overall lower accuracy and slower reaction times for learning among Chinese speakers (p’s<.001)—likely an outcome of the greater reliance on graphic cues than phonological cues in Chinese than in English and Turkish. Speakers of all three languages learned pseudowords for manner more accurately than path, showing an effect of motion type (p=.025). There was however no effect of modality, namely that speakers learned novel words equally well when instructed with gesture or without gesture. Overall, our results suggest that structure of one’s native language has minimal effect in learning novel words when not verbalized for different motion components in a new language, even if those components are expressed at different rates in the native language of the speakers. Our results also raise the possibility that the phonological structure of the language might be an important component in the relative ease with which speakers learn novel words.

ID 49 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Himmet Sarıtaş (Georgia State University), Şeyda Özçalışkan (Georgia State University)
  • Title- How gesture helps with dysfluent speech for second language learners in face-to-face and online interactions
  • Abstract

Gesture and speech act together in communication (Kendon, 2004, McNeill, 1992) both in first language (L1) and second language (L2) production contexts. Earlier research showed that L2 learners frequently use gesture along with speech in extended speech contexts, such as telling narratives (Hellermann, 2018; Majlesi, 2015; Matsumoto, 2019). More important, gesture provides a particularly useful tool when L2 learners encounter word finding difficulties in their communications (Eskildsen & Wagner, 2013; Gullberg, 1998, 2011). Learners use gesture more when their speech is disfluent (Graziano & Gullberg, 2018), namely when they pause in their speech to find words or repair what they have expressed incorrectly (Schegloff et al., 1977; Wong & Waring, 2010). Most of the earlier work on gesturing during disfluent speech in L2 learners focused on in-person interactions. However, we do not yet know whether gesture plays a similar or a different role when accompanying disfluent speech in online production contexts.

In this study, we aimed to fill in this gap by studying the role of gesture during dysfluent speech in face-to-face vs. online communication, using a narrative production task. The participants included 15 Turkish L2 learners, residing in Turkey, who had intermediate (B2) level of proficiency in Turkish. Each participant was interviewed in Turkish under two conditions with a L1Turkish speaker: in-person and two weeks later, online, using narrative tasks.  Each participant also completed the Edinburg Handedness Inventory, a language experience questionnaire: LEAP-Q that provides details on their experience in different languages, a demographic questionnaire that provides information about participant age, gender, race, along with several other demographic information and short word generation task to provide a fuller understanding of language and other characteristics of each participant. The participants were asked to first watch two 3-minute long cartoons, known to elicit gestures, and then narrate each to the experimenter, one at a time. The procedure for the online elicitation was the same, but the researcher and participant met online via the Zoom platform. Each elicitation included two cartoons, the first cartoon was the same in both elicitations while the second one differed to make the task more engaging for the participant.

All spoken responses were videotaped and transcribed using CHAT (MacWhinney, 2000). We are currently coding the gestures that accompanied narrative descriptions, following the guidelines in earlier work (Graziano & Gullberg, 2018). Our preliminary observations showed greater use of gestures, particularly iconic gestures that characterize actions or objects during dysfluent speech production than during fluent speech in L2 learners. Gesture also served multiple functions, from lexical retrieval (i.e., searching for the word for an entity) to the repair of word order; see Figure 1 for an example gesture sequence with dysfluent speech. This pattern was more pronounced in the face-to-face than in the online interaction, raising the possibility that gesture might play a greater facilitative role in L2 production in face-to-face than in online interaction contexts.

ID 50 (Language Development Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Angel Añorga (University of Cincinnati Blue Ash College)
  • Title- Voices of Self-Efficacy: A Phenomenological Case-Study on Language Learning Abroad
  • Abstract

Short-term language study abroad programs have continued to capture the attention of college students in recent years. However, how do we measure the impact of short-term language study abroad programs? Can we measure language gain using pre- and post-grammar-based assessments alone? If so, such practice may take away the essence and richness that a short sojourn can offer. Moreover, if we use grammar-based tests alone, how do we account for those students who generally perceive themselves as not proficient test takers? The process of language learning is, by nature, a complex task. When studying abroad, this process encompasses three main domains: the language learner, the second language, and the immersion setting. The intrinsic permeability among these domains reveals the complexity of the process of language learning abroad, mainly when the sojourn is short-term. Every language learner who studies abroad is unique and experiences the language learning process at a different level. Thus, from a self-efficacy theory perspective—and to allow the participants’ voices and stories to be heard—this study implements a phenomenological case study design to gain insights into participants’ self-efficacy perceptions of their language learning abroad. Self-efficacy is identified in the literature as the central phenomenon influencing students’ achievement and the determining factor of students’ success during short-term sojourns. In this study, five cases shared their stories regarding the process of learning Spanish abroad in relation to self-efficacy perceptions and beliefs. Data sources included in-depth three-way interviews, field observations, and student artifacts. Inductive analysis guided the highlight of significant statements and the creation of clusters and themes; cross-case analyses allowed for a thorough analysis and aided the in-depth description of the phenomenon’s essence at hand for each case. Several significant findings related to the process of language learning during short-term sojourns emerged through themes and subthemes. Through interactions with the host family and other native speakers, the participants discovered how much Spanish they could use abroad. Coming out of their comfort zones while interacting and using Spanish abroad enabled the participants to increase their self-efficacy perceptions. The more the participants partook in authentic language tasks, the more they showed increased belief in their abilities to learn Spanish. Future research is needed in self-efficacy to elucidate language learners’ beliefs in their capabilities to acquire a second language abroad.

ID 51 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Daniel Stewart (Georgetown University), Bianca Brown (Carnegie Mellon University)
  • Title- Casually Translanguaging in the Group Chats: Evidence from Peer Digital Interactions of L2 Turkish Learners during short-term study abroad
  • Abstract

Study abroad (SA) is a unique experience that affords students the possibility of making progress towards their linguistic goals while simultaneously establishing novel relationships and experiencing a different culture. Following Schieffelin and Ochs’s (1986) theoretical framework of language socialization, learners in SA develop their language skills from ‘novice’ to ‘expert’ through participation in communicative practices. Interestingly, these practices are assumed to be more authentic when carried out exclusively in the target language (TL) and/or in interactions with the local community or “native” speakers (McGregor, 2021). In other words, fellow L2 learning peers are often overlooked and believed to be inadequate interlocutors for practicing the TL (Trentman, 2021). Consequently, there is a dearth of studies investigating how L2 learners use language with their L2 peers in everyday, naturalistic speech during SA. To explore this understudied area, McGregor (2021) collected data from informal, naturalistic interactions of learners of German during a six-week SA program with the aim of determining (1) if L2 peers are valuable interlocutors and revealing (2) how L2 learning peers use language. The findings showed that the L2 peers were indeed valuable interlocutors and that learners commonly used their multilingual repertoires (or translanguaged) as well as humor in their interactions (McGregor, 2021).

The present study aims to continue filling in the empirical gaps on this topic by presenting data from L2 peer digital interactions in another short-term SA context. More specifically, informal, naturalistic data was collected from six WhatsApp group chats consisting of nineteen adult learners of Turkish during their participation in an eight-week intensive summer language program in Istanbul. The research questions from McGregor (2021) were adopted and modified for the digital interactions, and an additional question regarding learners’ socialization following the theoretical framework of Schieffelin and Ochs (1986) was posed:

(1) Are WhatsApp group chats valuable sites for learners’ Turkish language development in short-term SA?

(2a) If so, how do L2 learning peers use language in informal, naturalistic interactions with one another during short-term SA, and why?

(2b) How is learners’ socialization into the abroad context evidenced in the group chats?

To answer these questions, this work couples thematic analysis with discourse analysis to identify salient themes across the group chats and subsequently examine the language-in-use in different contexts. This analytical combination allows a deeper understanding of the interaction among the L2 peers’ linguistic repertoires (McGregor, 2021). Preliminary observations suggest that the Whatsapp group chats afford learners a space for valuable interaction in the target language. Additionally, the data exhibits consistencies with previous literature regarding learners’ use of language play, humor, and translanguaging during their socialization abroad (McGregor, 2021; Shively, 2013). Altogether, these findings provide a snapshot into the everyday, digital L2 peer interactions during short-term SA and also contributes to ongoing discussions in the literature to validating L2 peers as authentic interlocutors for the development of the target language (Bucholtz, 2003; van Compernolle & McGregor, 2016).

ID 53 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Janet Helen Sedlar (University of Chicago)
  • Title- Unscripted Recordings as the Core of a Study Abroad Course in Barcelona: A Case Study
  • Abstract

A major challenge faced by instructors teaching in a study abroad context is that typically they are forced to use textbooks designed either for students studying in their own country, or for immigrants in the target culture from disparate backgrounds. American students abroad need access to sociolinguistic tools tailored for them and for the specific culture in which they are living. The dearth of appropriate materials for our Study Abroad Program in Barcelona was a problem in my department until I was given the opportunity to develop and teach the intermediate-level Spanish course myself. (Graduate students normally teach the intermediate level; other levels are taught by a permanent on-site lecturer.)

I created the course with two learning outcomes in mind: 1) for students to successfully navigate everyday communicative situations in Spanish; and 2) for students to improve their transcultural competence. Functioning linguistically while living abroad implies a greater emphasis on oral than written skills, so I based the course primarily on two sets of unscripted audio recordings I produced featuring native Spaniards. In the first, speakers spontaneously modeled linguistic functions that students need in daily life, such as asking for directions, ordering food or drinks in a restaurant, etc.

I based the grammar sequencing on the structures most frequently employed in these improvised role plays. This led to a somewhat unconventional order, in which the conditional and future are introduced earlier than is typical in textbooks. Using the role play transcriptions as the basis for teaching grammar also allows students to see the structures contextualized before being asked to produce them themselves.

The second set of recordings consists of interviews providing students with cultural information and highlights cultural differences between Spain and the U.S perceived by the interviewees. Some topics include the culture of work, higher education and health care, the concept of family, etc.

Students’ interactions with Spaniards outside the classroom are integrated into the course via required language diaries, where students record new words or phrases they encounter, vocabulary they wanted to express but couldn’t, or some cultural difference they noticed. Each week they are asked to submit four entries from their diaries. The instructor then compiles a glossary based on some of these diary entries, which is discussed in class and forms the basis of a vocabulary quiz.

I attribute the success of this course to 1) its unusually strong focus on unscripted recordings, which prove highly useful not only in accurately modeling the sociolinguistics and pragmatics of language use in everyday situations, but also in improving listening comprehension and expanding awareness of contrasting cultural perspectives; and to 2) its integration of students’ own interactions in Barcelona into the course. This model of incorporating recordings of improvised modeling of linguistic functions and discussions of cultural topics could be replicated in many institutions, not just in courses taught abroad but also in the home institution. The recordings can be used either in lieu of a traditional textbook, as was the case described here, or as a supplement.

ID 57 (Program Design Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Catherine M Box (University of Pennsylvania), Anne Pomerantz (University of Pennsylvania)
  • Title- Articulating An Contextually-Attuned Agenda for EMI
  • Abstract

English Medium Instruction (EMI), the delivery of curricular content in English at the tertiary level, has grown considerably since the turn of the twenty-first century. Within higher education, many institutions, in which English is not a dominant language of the community, have embraced EMI in disparate fields such as medicine, law, and engineering, purportedly to internationalize their approach to education. Whereas some see EMI as an approach that will foster bilingualism and promote global citizenship among domestic students, others view EMI as a way to attract students from abroad and diversify their campuses. Thus, a growing number of university faculty and staff around the world receive administrative directives to offer coursework in English. Pedagogical and linguistic support for instructors and students at these institutions, however, varies wildly. 

Guidance from researchers and professionals regarding “best practices” for enacting this kind of instructional change abounds (e.g. Lasagabaster & Doiz, 2021; Macaro, Curle, Pun, An, & Dearden, 2018; Richards & Pun, 2022). Neverteless, institutions grapple with EMI implementation. First, there seems to be a lack of consensus regarding the definition of EMI, and which contexts qualify as EMI settings (Rose, Macaro, Sahan, Aizawa, Zhou, & Wei, 2023). Furthermore, the issues addressed by EMI researchers may seem somewhat disconnected from the local realities of administrators, teachers, and students. While scholars caution against a “one size fits all” approach to implementation (Milligan & Tikly, 2016), there is a dearth of work on exactly how practitioners enact EMI, and how multilingual repertoires and attitudes towards language use figure in EMI classrooms.  

Our work aims to articulate a situated, practitioner-oriented agenda for research on EMI. To this end, it describes two multi-phase projects in Latin America, one in Chile and one in Brazil, that focused on initiating and implementing EMI at the university-level.  Drawing on fieldnotes, observations, and informal conversations with participants involved in these projects, it illuminates a disjuncture between the kinds of questions addressed by EMI researchers and the issues, questions, and challenges facing practitioners. Likewise, it illustrates the need for more situated, ethnographic approaches to studying the implementation of EMI as an institutional undertaking and not merely a pedagogical endeavor. The presentation will argue for more EMI research that considers the broader institutional and sociopolitical contexts in which EMI is set, as well as stakeholders’ perceptions of these contexts. It concludes with three questions for EMI researchers to consider. 

ID 60 (Program Design Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Sara Castro Cantú (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Walther Glödstaf (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Elizabeth King (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign)
  • Title- The sociolinguistics of study abroad in an online community:  The case of a public university in the Midwest
  • Abstract

Study abroad continues to be a highly coveted experience for undergraduate students. Recent work on the social role of students in study abroad contexts (Holsworth, 2017; Leeman & Driver, 2021; Mocanu; 2023) has shown that, while the reasons students choose to study abroad vary, the experience inevitably exposes them to questions of culture, identity, and community. Most of these questions arise while abroad, yet many home institutions also help facilitate students’ development into more reflective, globally aware individuals by promoting their engagement with notions of language, globalization, postcolonialism, and the ethics of studying abroad. This paper explores the specific problems in attaining these goals in the context of a study abroad program at a large public university in the Midwest, where students participate in an online community prior to, during, and after their time abroad.

In our roles as Teaching Assistants for this study abroad course, we observe, on the one hand, students’ ideological shifts and growing global awareness over the time frame of the year when they study abroad. On the other hand, students may resist questioning the ideological frameworks that led them to study abroad in the first place. Four problems that we have observed include: (i) Learning goals requiring time and reflection may be at odds with students’ goals for study abroad (e.g., students are interested in maximizing the amount of different cultures they experience, rather than focusing on experiencing one culture); (ii) Learning opportunities are largely chance-based and thus hard to deliver equitably, thus whether learning opportunities are seized depends too much on student background and programme-specific variables; (iii) Students from more diverse backgrounds are better at seizing opportunities, but make up the minority of study abroad students; and (iv) Less immersive programs can cut off students from host country peers in favor of a more curated experience.

These four problems can be generalizable to other study abroad programs, and we argue that programs could use the strengths of online communities to create opportunities for students to engage critically, have in-depth discussions, and develop more nuanced notions of global citizenship and identity. While online communities can maximize the amount of experiences students are exposed to via peer interactions between different programs, thus maximizing learning opportunities, it is also important to realize that building a community of students that resembles an in-person community remains a difficult task. This in turn undercuts some of the efficiency of our solutions. A critical examination of study abroad programs’ goals has important implications for curriculum design and materials, since learning outcomes are not guaranteed to be met by simply going abroad. This is doubly important as study abroad continues to be sought out as a means to gain professional advantages in an increasingly competitive and globalized world, and more students seek to gain the benefits our programs promise.

ID 62 (Program Design Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions) – Gorka Basterretxea Santiso (Northeastern University), Andrea Hernando (Georgetown University), Fatima Ventura Ramirez (Georgetown University), Caroline Vail (Georgetown University), Cristina Sanz (Georgetown University)
  • Title- A Mixed Methods Study on Scholars’ and Practitioners’ Perspectives on Heritage Speakers and Study Abroad
  • Abstract

Previous literature has explored the factors that students consider to (not) participate in study abroad (SA) (Anderson & Lawton, 2015). Recent studies aimed to understand the impact of the recent pandemic and the field’s response to it (Authors, 2022, 2023); others attempted to contribute their information to the development of more diverse and inclusive programs (Quan, 2018; Marijuan, 2023), since very little is known about minority students’ motivations to SA (Moreno, 2009; Petrucci, 2007; Shively, 2018). Currently, 68.7% of US students in SA identify as White (Fischer, 2021).

As part of a larger research project that aims at raising awareness and increasing heritage speakers’ (HS) participation in SA, this presentation focuses on scholars’ and practitioners’ perspectives on HSs and SA (N = 60). Of them, 29 conduct research on or teach classes for HSs; 40 have directed SA programs that include HSs. Between summer and fall of 2023, participants completed Anderson and Lawton’s (2015) five-point Likert-scale on Motivation to Study Abroad (MSA). The original MSA questionnaire included factors related to World Enlightenment, Personal Growth, Career Development, and Entertainment, but was later adapted by Authors (2022, 2023) to include Health and Language Development factors. For triangulation purposes, participants answered open-ended questions on the same topic before and after the survey.

Descriptive statistics suggest scholars and practitioners of HS/SA coincide with students in Anderson and Lawton (2015), and Authors (2022, 2023): they ranked World Enlightenment at the top and Entertainment at the bottom of the ranking. Therefore, there is universal agreement among students in general, including BIPOC (Anderson & Lawton, 20215; Authors, 2022, 2023), and HS/SA researchers and practitioners on the first and last reasons to participate in SA. Interestingly, scholars and practitioners judge Career Development as important as World Enlightenment for HSs. In this, scholars and practitioners of HS/SA somewhat align with BIPOC groups, who valued Career Development higher than their White counterparts (Authors, 2023). Interestingly, and in contrast with previous findings (Authors 2022, 2023), scholars and practitioners did not consider Health factors as relevant for HSs, possibly due to the timing of the study, post pandemic.

Individual differences such as being HSs themselves, previous experience teaching HSs, working at a minority serving institution, and experience organizing SA programs were identified by logistic regressions and ANOVAs as statistically significant factors associated with differences on the perceived impact of Health and Entertainment factors on HSs’ decisions. Thematic analysis of qualitative data identified important factors not previously introduced; in particular, program’s cost and contribution to the major/graduation schedule must be considered to increase HSs’ participation in SA. Other factors already identified in the literature (Moreno, 2009; Petrucci, 2007; Shively, 2018), such as to learn more about their roots, destination, linguistic insecurity, and family responsibilities also emerged as potential factors considered by HSs.

ID 63 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Pablo Camus (Soka University of America)
  • Title- Preparing for Study Abroad: target tasks and short stories as a way to promote intercultural awareness
  • Abstract

This presentation reports the design and implementation of pre-departure materials for an intermediate course geared toward preparation for study abroad in a Spanish-speaking country. At this institution, a small private university in Southern California, every student is required to complete a semester abroad. After a brief overview of the course’ learning objectives and content, I will focus on two pre-departure materials: target tasks following TBLT principles (Long, 2015), and short stories as a way to promote intercultural learning.

TBLT materials were created by conducting a multiphase needs analysis to identify the specific learners’ needs. Using a mixed methods approach, key stakeholders were contacted (students who already sojourned abroad and resident director of SA programs) in order to interview them and learn about their communicative needs abroad. Then, this data was triangulated with students who rated the frequency and difficulty of each task on a 40 item Likert-type questionnaire. Finally, I analyzed and categorized target tasks identified in the needs to create five major target task types.

Secondly, I will present five short stories tailor-made for this course about fictional sojourners who travel to different cities in the Spanish-speaking world. In these stories these fictional characters face common challenges such as cultural shock, negotiation of identity and identity crisis, language barriers, stereotyping, and loneliness. I argue that fiction can be a way to promote mediated intercultural encounters (Holmes, Bavieri & Ganassin, 2015) which are important sites for intercultural learning and awareness development (Holmes & O’Neill 2010;2012). The readings are accompanied activities that combine interpretative, presentational, inter-personal elements, and are used as pre-task for the target tasks identified in the need’s analysis.

I conclude arguing how these pre-departure materials can equip students to effectively participate in the destination abroad, both in terms of L2 development and intercultural sensitivity, as scholars have argued both variables are linked (Martinsen, 2010; Baker-Smemoe et al., 2014). Finally, I comment on student’s feedback (after their sojourn abroad) and how it has helped to improve and build upon the course over three semesters.

ID 66 (Program Design Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Silvia Marijuan (California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo), Scott Ferree (California Polytechnic State University)
  • Title-Navigating linguistic and cultural boundaries: Spanish heritage speakers and pre-departure exchanges in study abroad
  • Abstract

Drawing on previous research highlighting the centrality of pre-departure interventions in the success of study abroad (SA) programs (e.g., Vasseur et al., 2022) and on a translingual practice framework (Canagarajah, 2013), this presentation addresses how implementing conversation exchanges before departure can not only encourage SA participants to share their perspectives among peers from diverse ethnolinguistic/cultural backgrounds using their second language (L2) or heritage language (HL) but also help them detect and analyze strategies to (re)negotiate meaning crucial for successful interactions across linguistic and cultural boundaries.

 The study reported here implemented a pre-departure conversation exchange between a mixed SA cohort comprising L2 learners (L2Ls) (n=14) and Spanish heritage speakers (SHS) (n=4) and a group of SHSs from the same institution who served as conversation partners (n=5). The mixed SA cohort consisted of college students in a public university in California enrolled in a four-week SA program in Spain. Before departure, in addition to engaging in a face-to-face conversation exchange with a group of SHSs, the mixed SA cohort also participated in an online conversation exchange with students from the host institution in Spain. The goals of the study were to examine: (a) whether L2Ls and SHSs in the SA cohort had different goals for studying abroad and different perceived challenges; (b) whether the SA cohort perceived the pre-departure conversation exchange with SHSs as a supportive environment that facilitated the negotiation of their language/semiotic resources and cultural identities; (c) whether SA participants considered that the pre-departure conversation exchange with SHSs prepared them to interact online, at a later stage, with students from the host university; and (d) whether SHS conversation partners felt empowered to lead the pre-departure exchange. Finally, by connecting SA participants with SHSs from nearby migrant communities in California where Spanish is spoken as an HL, the pre-departure intervention sought to promote cultural awareness and challenge monolingual/monocultural ideologies in the predominantly white institution where the study was conducted.

 Reflections and survey data were collected from the mixed group of SA participants as well as from their SHS conversation partners. The qualitative data from the SA participants’ reflections and the survey items completed by the SA cohort and the SHS conversation partners were analyzed in a recursive process following Braun and Clarke (2006). The study revealed that the pre-departure conversation exchanges fostered a space for self-reflection, community building, and meaningful language practice. This research advances the understanding of SA as a multi-phased learning experience, demonstrating that pre-departure exchanges with SHSs orient participants toward developing performative competence and exploring their belief systems. Additionally, the pre-departure phase is shown to raise awareness of linguistic diversity, especially in the context of the United States. Lastly, pre-departure conversation exchanges serve to increase the visibility and amplify the voices of SHSs, challenging monolingual and monocultural ideologies. In conclusion, this presentation underscores the significance of pre-departure conversation exchanges in SA programs, providing a foundation for enhanced intercultural competence, reduced learner anxiety, and increased willingness to communicate.

ID 68 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Hailing Wang (University of Pennsylvania), Gengqi Xiao (University of Pennsylvania), Ying Shen (University of Pennsylvania), Ying Chen (University of Pennsylvania)
  • Title-Negotiating Ethnic-Racial Identity: Experiences of Chinese International Students in U.S. Higher Education
  • Abstract

In the United States, a nation with a history of ethnic-racial tensions underscored by legislation like the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, Asian populations have experienced a legacy of both selective inclusion and exclusion. Nonetheless, the U.S. remains a popular destination for international students, particularly from China. In the 2021-2022 academic year, Chinese students made up 37.7% of the international student body in American higher education. These students, predominantly from an ethnically homogeneous background where over 90% are Han Chinese, face a significant transition in the U.S. They are confronted with a complex ethnic-racial landscape and increased anti-Asian sentiment and discrimination that was exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic (Jeung et al., 2021).

Ethnic-racial identity (ERI), a psychological construct that captures individuals’ perceptions and feelings about their racial and ethnic backgrounds (Phinney, 1992), plays a key role in personal development. Research has shown its protective effects against adjustment issues in Chinese American children and mitigating mental health issues in Chinese immigrant families (Stein et al., 2014; Litam et al., 2021). However, the role and impact of ERI among Chinese international students are extremely understudied, with only few studies (Liu, 2023; Oh et al., 2023) exploring their emotional and intersectional experiences regarding ERI. This qualitative study seeks to fill this literature gap by examining how Chinese international students in the U.S. make sense of their ERI. Such an understanding is vital, as it encompasses the intersection of nationality, culture, and the racial dynamics of both their home country and the United States. This research will thus provide insight into how these students’ ERI influences their academic and social life in an U.S. higher educational setting.

The sample consisted of 20 Chinese international students currently residing in the U.S. on an F-1 visa status. Among these participants, 13 identified as female, and 7 identified as male. Participants were recruited using a combination of convenience and snowball sampling methods. Data collection was performed through one-on-one Zoom interviews, with each session lasting 45 to 75 minutes. The research team utilized thematic analysis and Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (Smith & Osborn, 2003), aiming to both find broader patterns and explore emotionally charged, marginalized lived experiences of participants. Preliminary findings revealed: (1) lack of ERI salience and ERI-related concept before coming to the U.S.; (2) navigating ERI in academic setting, career planning, tourism, and visa status; (3) limited diversity socialization, social network with non-Chinese students, and knowledge on systemic inequity; (4) reconstructing ERI through navigating microaggression and discrimination and critical reflection; (5) inclination towards whiteness and rejection of whiteness; and (6) leveraging cultural assets as resilience in academia and everyday life. These findings reveal how Chinese international students in U.S. higher education navigate their racialized positions and the pervasive impact of ERI, which highlights the need for more inclusive educational environments that acknowledge the diverse experiences of international students, support in visa and career planning, and resources to address racial dynamics.

ID 70 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Author (Institution)– Mitsuko Takei (Hiroshima Shudo University)
  • Title- Journaling journeys: Insights from positive deviants on effective reflective practices for study abroad
  • Abstract

The significance of study-abroad programs in higher education to enhance students’ academic, cultural, and linguistic skills is well established. These programs are more than mere academic sojourns; they are rich, immersive experiences that foster personal development and intercultural understanding (Leask, 2015). Reflective journaling as an introspective practice is emerging as a critical pedagogical tool within this experiential learning framework (Moon, 2006). It offers a unique means of processing and internalizing students’ experiences, thereby enhancing learning outcomes.

However, the effectiveness of reflective journaling varies among study-abroad students. While some students thrive by documenting transformative insights and evolving perspectives through writing, others struggle to engage in journaling in a way that promotes meaningful reflection. This discrepancy raises questions about the prerequisites for effective journaling and the conditions under which it contributes to the intended outcome of intercultural understanding.

Employing a positive deviance approach (Pascale, Sternin & Sternin, 2010), this study examined the characteristics of effective journaling in a group of study-abroad students at a Japanese university. Two participants were identified as positive deviants because of their consistent journaling practices. Through a systematic analysis of their journal entries and subsequent interviews using Braun & Clark’s (2006) reflective thematic analysis method, this study seeks to uncover the similarities and differences in their journaling practices that led to their effective engagement in reflective processes.

The preliminary findings suggest that the participants share several characteristics, including a proactive approach to reflection, journaling as a space for critical thinking, and connecting personal experiences with broader cultural and academic concepts. These students approached their journaling journeys from a structured and reflective mindset, often dedicating specific time for the activity, which became an essential part of their daily routine. Their entries were characterized by detailed observations, emotional honesty, and willingness to engage constructively with challenging experiences. Both used their first language (Japanese) to describe events and express their feelings and thoughts more easily and were aware of the audience, that is, the teacher.

Although they were identified as effective journal writers in both writing regularity and content, their journaling approaches differed: one maintained a diary-like journal, whereas the other created a narrative similar to that of a travelogue. The diarist benefited from the emotional processing of daily events, which facilitated profound personal transformation and language learning through the articulation of affective experiences. The travelogue writer used a more observational approach and developed cultural competence through a detailed narration and analysis of external experiences.

The implications of this study can be extended to the design and facilitation of journaling activities assigned to study-abroad programs. By acknowledging and supporting different journaling styles, program designers can foster an environment to empower students in choosing reflective practices that best suit their individual needs and preferences, thereby enhancing the overall educational impact of their international experiences.

ID 71 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Author (Institution)– Tongle Sun (The Chinese University of Hong Kong)
  • Title- Second language identities and intercultural development: Chinese international exchange students in an English-speaking country
  • Abstract

As internationalization initiatives intensify, Hong Kong universities are sending out an increasing number of students through short-term international exchange programs. While study abroad has been associated with an enhanced second language proficiency, an intercultural mindset, and a broadened sense of self, contemporary study abroad research has debunked the transformative ‘myth’ (e.g., Benson et al., 2013; Iwasaki, 2019; Jackson, 2019, 2020; Kinginger, 2013). Influenced by individual differences (e.g., agency, motivation, language/intercultural attitudes) and external factors (e.g., host receptivity, access to host communities of practice), study abroad sojourners may have divergent experiences in the host environment, which leads to varying degrees of gains and variation in study abroad outcomes.

This paper reports on the language, identity, and intercultural learning of Chinese international exchange students from a Hong Kong university who joined a semester-long exchange program in an English-speaking country. To develop a deeper understanding of the complexity of study abroad learning, the study adopted a longitudinal, mixed-method, largely qualitative design. Focal case participants were surveyed and interviewed at different stages of their study abroad experience (i.e., before, during, after, and six months after). The study identified a range of internal and external factors that appeared to influence the participants’ second language learning, identity construction, and intercultural development in the host environment. After presenting the key findings, discussion will focus on the implications for pre-sojourn preparation, sojourn support, and re-entry interventions for enhancing student learning throughout the study abroad cycle.

Keywords: study abroad, Chinese international exchange students, language and identity, intercultural learning, intercultural development


Benson, P., Barkhuizen, G., Bodycott, P., & Brown, J. (2013). Second language identity in narratives of study abroad. Palgrave Macmillan.

Iwasaki, N. (2019). Individual differences in study abroad research: Sources, processes and outcomes of students’ development in language, culture, and personhood. In M. Howard (Ed.), Study abroad, second language acquisition and interculturality (pp. 237-262). Multilingual Matters.

Jackson, J. (2019). Online intercultural education and study abroad: Theory into practice. Routledge.

Jackson, J. (2020). Intercultural education in study abroad contexts. In S. Rasinger & G. Rings (Eds.), Cambridge handbook on intercultural communication (pp. 335-349). Cambridge University Press.

Kinginger, C. (2013). Identity and language learning in study abroad. Foreign Language Annals, 46(3), 339-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12037 

ID 72 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)– Ying Shen (University of Pennsylvania), Hailing Wang (University of Pennsylvania)
  • Title- Understanding Gap Year Decisions Among Chinese International Graduate Students in the United States
  • Abstract

The concept of a “gap year” is commonly understood as the break taken between high school and university. However, there is a notable lack of research on gap years occurring between undergraduate and graduate studies, especially among international students. The existing literature provides some insights into this phenomenon. Zhang et al. (2022) and Trice (2003) have investigated the influence of cultural and societal expectations on students’ decisions to take gap years. Li et al. (2017) have underscored familial pressures as a significant factor. Additionally, Flippen (2021) discusses the added complexities due to the shift to virtual platforms and the broader implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of the specific motivations and challenges faced by Chinese international students in the United States. This student demographic has encountered unprecedented challenges during the pandemic, such as travel restrictions, visa issues, and a surge in anti-Asian sentiment. Understanding why and how these students navigate these challenges by choosing to take a gap year is crucial. It offers invaluable insights for the development of responsive educational policies and support systems, enhancing the educational experience and well-being of international students. Therefore, this study aims to address this literature gap by focusing on the motivations and decisions of these students during this transitional period and investigating potential cultural, personal, familial, or societal factors contributing to their decision-making processes.

At the time of submission, the current study conducted semi-structured interviews with eight Chinese international graduate students. Four of these students had taken a gap year between their undergraduate and graduate studies, while the remaining four did not take a gap year. Deductive thematic coding was performed to uncover significant patterns in the decision-making processes of those students. The study’s preliminary findings reveal a complex scenario in which Chinese students grapple with balancing traditional values against their quest for self-exploration and development. These findings include: (1) a struggle between cultural identity and the anxiety associated with age and career trajectories, influenced by age-based cultural norms; (2) the major disruption caused by COVID-19, affecting career planning, visa issues, physical location, and psychological distress; (3) the role of gap years in both clarifying and hindering career development; (4) financial considerations; and (5) linguistic challenges. Additionally, these preliminary findings highlight the influence of age, gender, and educational background on opting for a gap year.

The findings shed light on the intricate interplay of personal, cultural, and global factors influencing the gap year decisions of Chinese international graduate students. They underscore the urgent need for educational reforms that acknowledge cultural diversity, provide mental health support, and understand the evolving identities of students in international educational contexts. Additionally, this research aims to contribute to enriching academic discourse. It seeks to empower parents to offer more effective support and guide prospective students in making well-informed decisions about taking gap years.

ID 74 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Author (Institution)– Isabel Tejada-Sanchez (Universidad de los Andes (Colombia))
  • Title- EME Landscapes in the internationalized university: the cases of Colombia and South Korea
  • Abstract

This paper presents a comparative case study aiming to describe, characterize, and understand how English Medium Education (EME – also referred to as English Medium Instruction-EMI) is implemented in two higher education (HEd) institutions in South Korea and Colombia. EME is considered a systemic and strategic decision for global connectivity, yet its implementation poses challenges (Dafouz & Grey, 2022; Richards & Pun, 2023). Shohamy’s (2012) introductory and current critical perspective suggests potential negative impacts on academic achievement, recognition of local cultures, and assessment rigor at universities. Research conducted in both contexts highlights the need for a comprehensive investigation into EME’s impact in non-English speaking HEd institutions (Authors, 2021; Molina-Naar & Miranda, 2022; Corrales, Rey, & Santiago-Escamilla, 2016; Choi, 2016, 2021a, 2021b; Kim, Choi, & Tatar, 2017; Choi, Tatar & Kim, 2021).

The study begins with two key observations. Firstly, students’ academic achievement and identity formation are impacted when education occurs in an additional language, resulting in ‘epistemic injustice’ and viewing English as ‘an important but unfair resource’ (Choi, 2021). Secondly, EMI fosters a sense of belonging to an international academic community, influencing how educators and students shape their identities. Teachers navigate institutional demands through the decoupling of tasks (Jon, Cho & Byun, 2020), discreetly separating pedagogical practices from English curriculum requirements.

Against this backdrop, I qualitatively explore the intersection of EME, internationalization, and interculturality in the pedagogical practices of 15 educators in both countries, guided by two frameworks: first, I use the architecture of practices by Kemmis et al. (2014) to scrutinize the ways the ‘sayings, doings, and relatings’ lead to certain cultural-discursive, material-economic, and social-political arrangements that enact the EME praxis. Second, I connect this with four ROAD MAPPING dimensions: Roles of English, Internationalization and Glocalization, Agents, and Academic Disciplines (Dafouz & Smit, 2020). Data were obtained through in-situ observations, interviews, document analysis, and questionnaires and coded using Qualitative Content Analysis and Grounded Theory procedures.

Findings reveal rich landscapes of EME pedagogical practices with both commonalities and differences across countries and institutions. Educators emphasize the role of English for students’ professional advancement and global connectivity, intertwining their identities and agency with their experiences as EME practitioners and former international students or Teaching Assistants. However, approaches to building rapport with students vary, reflecting different strategies to engage and minimize the affective filter in language use. These variations are not connected to any discipline in particular.

In conclusion, both institutions concur that EME equates the projection of an internationalized university where English operates as the academic lingua franca. Both exhibit complex EME landscapes in terms of approaches to offering complimentary ESL instruction and evolving EME policies, which have become more flexible in terms of academic rigor and influence in students’ overall academic success. Implications of this study include recognizing that EME requires transdisciplinary support regardless of its context, and understanding its potential to reshape teacher identities critically becomes essential. Finally, EME experiences intentionally designed can promote social and educational justice, embracing an ecologically oriented model that honors local traditions, needs and expectations while aligning with global demands.

ID 75 (Global Citizenship Strand)-Needs confirmation

  • Authors (Institutions)– Celeste Kinginger (Penn State University), Jingyuan Zhuang (Penn State University)
  • Title- Schooling and cognitive-emotional drama in the professional life stories of U.S. study abroad alumni
  • Abstract

This presentation will review a portion of the qualitative data from a large-scale, explanatory mixed-methods investigation of U.S. based language study abroad alumni. The larger study  examined how language ability is valued and cultivated across the lifespan and how language study abroad has figured in long-term career development. In its first phase, the project involved a quantitative online survey (N=4899) of alumni of all ages. Subsequently, qualitative professional life history interviews were conducted with 54 participants selected from among 2741 volunteers using a typology based on Multiple Correspondence Analysis. These interviews centered around the overall history of each participant’s career but often included other topical foci such as study abroad experiences, influences in childhood or adolescence, pleasures or frustrations of language learning, and aspirations for the future.

Grounded in Vygotskian cultural-historical theory, our approach to these life history narratives takes up the holistic concepts of perezhivanie and the social situation of development. As a concept, the term perezhivanie (translated as “lived” or “emotional” experience) denotes the dialectic unity of emotion and cognition, the changes wrought by lived experiences of contradiction and drama, and longer-term, cathartic processes of resolving such conflict. As a unit of analysis, perezhivanie represents the dialectic unity of objective conditions in the social environment and the psychology of the individual: objective conditions are refracted through individual psychology to yield unique social situations of development. Cultural-historical theory has long posited that higher mental functions are transformed from social relations to intermental functions in the Zone of Proximal Development; however, not every relation provokes change. Only those situations that are dramatic, that have an impact on the learner’s emotions and that arise in contradictions occurring in social environments have this effect. Importantly, dramatic moments can seem trivial on the surface; what matters is the way they are refracted by individual psychology and how long these situations remain vivid in memory and contribute to the coherence of life stories.

In this presentation we examine which aspects of academic pursuit, whether before or during study abroad, retain their relevance as cognitive-emotional drama in professional life histories over the long term. We also remain attentive to the cultural-historical nature of storytelling itself, including the influence of narrative templates such as the framing of study abroad as transformation through adventure. As befits the canonical U.S. study abroad narrative, considering the entire database we find little reference to academic cognitive-emotional drama while abroad in our participants’ stories. Such experiences are recounted only when dramatic contractions between past and present experience were perceived and required cathartic resolution. However, many of our participants retain durable, detailed and vivid memories of the teachers who, before study abroad, nurtured their interest in language and international careers with surprising and therefore dramatic approaches, lessons or gestures. Some of these episodes have remained relevant in life stories for up to five decades and offer clear testimony to the potential life-long influence of language teachers. 

ID 77 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Author (Institution)– Zhiwen Song (University of Cincinnati)
  • Title-“Go back to your country, use English”: International students navigating tensions in monolingual discourses 
  • Abstract

The number of international students worldwide has increased steadily from two to over six million in the past 20 years. About half of those students come from the Asia-Pacific, among which students from China remain one of the largest populations to pursue study-abroad education. As one of the top destination countries, the US has one of the largest shares (34.7%) of those students in higher education among the total international enrollment (UNESCO, 2021). The transnational experiences bring about significant changes in the way international students learn, communicate and socialize after they mobilize from dominant Chinese-speaking to English-speaking nations.

However, those students’ language practices are not purely Chinese or English-only. In fact, translanguaging represents the de facto language practices when bi/multilinguals deploy and leverage their full (non)linguistic repertoire. Going beyond the notion of “one nation, one language, one people”, translanguaging calls into question the named language entity that is socially, politically and institutionally constructed (Garcia & Li, 2014; Otheguy et al., 2015). Translanguaging as a naturally occurring phenomenon (Canagarajah, 2011) challenges the imaginary boundaries between named languages and advocates for the racialized bi/multilinguals (Flores & Rosa, 2015; Garcia et al., 2022). The trans-prefix denotes the transformative power of translanguaging that lies in social justice for linguistically minoritized and racialized bi/multilinguals.

So far, scholarship on translanguaging has given more attention to the context of K-12 education, particularly dual language education in the US where originally translanguaging has drawn inspiration from. The English-dominant higher education context is relatively underexplored. Under the grip of monolingualism in US higher education, English-only has turned into a normativity that continuously stigmatizes bi/multilingual students’ use of L1s.

Framed in a translanguaging view, this qualitative multiple case study (Merriam, 1998) investigated the dynamic heterogeneous in-and-out-of-school language practice of three Chinese international students who were studying at a US university. The study uses constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014) to inform the analysis of various types of data including open-ended surveys, semi-structured interviews, observational field notes, and various multimodal texts (e.g., study notes, social media posts, vlogs).

The findings demonstrate that translanguaging affords those participants indispensable meaning-making resources to (re)construct their linguistic, cultural, and social identities as Chinese, bilingual speaker, Cantonese learner, international student, graduate assistant, gamer, pet-owner etc. However, participants expressed serious concern about the potential pushback against doing translanguaging in both the US and China. For example, while engaged in playing online multiplayer video gaming, one participant experienced racism and linguicism – “go back to your country, speak English”. Their context-dependent perceptions of translanguaging suggest that the language practices are considerably shaped by the pervasive monolingual mindset, practice and ideology at both individual and institutional levels that are deeply rooted in nation/state ideologies.

In conclusion, the study called for the reconceptualization of the dynamic language practices of bi/multilinguals from a translanguaging perspective. It has implications on future research for the internationally mobilized and linguistically minoritized populations. It appealed to reflection and reform on monolingual practice and language policy to respect bi/multilinguals’ repertoire and identities.


ID 08 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Gengqi Xiao (University of Pennsylvania), Donna DelPrete (Columbia University)
  • Title-Countering linguistic borders through translanguaging practices in a multilingual U.S. secondary school
  • Abstract

Despite being largely studied in bilingual classrooms, there is a paucity of research on translanguaging pedagogy in multilingual secondary contexts. To fill this lacuna, this study adapts Sánchez et al.’s (2018) Translanguaging Allocation Policy (TAP) framework, initially conceptualized for Dual Language Bilingual Education programs within the U.S., to explore translanguaging practices in a U.S. urban high school setting with a substantial population of multilingual learners (MLs). The TAP framework is pivotal in advocating for the harnessing of diverse linguistic resources as tools for enriching learning experiences, thereby seeking to dismantle the societal and ideological linguistic boundaries that perpetuate exclusion. The study also utilizes the continua of biliteracy model proposed by Hornberger and Skilton-Sylvester (2000) to critically examine the linguistic borders and the power dynamics shaped by historical and social factors. Adopting a design-based research methodology, as outlined by Reeves (2006), we have designed and implemented translanguaging practices including translanguaging documentation, translanguaging rings, and translanguaging transformations during the Fall of 2023, aiming to disrupt the prevailing linguistic power hierarchy and to facilitate a more inclusive educational paradigm. Findings reveal that 1) MLs’ holistic use of linguistic resources to accommodate their audiences continuously challenges the ideologically constructed linguistic borders; 2) integrating MLs’ funds of knowledge, multimodality, and multisensory resources triangulate with other linguistic resources in the class can maximize the accessibility of content knowledge; 3) creating translanguaging transformation spaces in the class have the potential of challenging the linguistic hegemony, breaking down linguistic borders, and ultimately creating learning communities within multilingual secondary schools. This study not only seeks to contribute to the growing body of research on translanguaging practices, but it also aims to provide practical insights for educators in multilingual settings, advocating for pedagogical strategies that recognize and value the linguistic diversity of students.

ID 12 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Esther Vicente Manzanedo (University of East Anglia)
  • Title-Differences in aptitude in multilingual children from two age groups
  • Abstract

The study of foreign language aptitude has mainly focused on adults and their ultimate attainment (Doughty, 2013). However, not many studies have been conducted in terms of children’s language aptitude, especially in the case of multilingual children. In fact, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) studies with young learners are often under-represented (Roehr-Brackin, 2022). Recent theoretical advancements have attempted to explain the role of language aptitude in different acquisitional stages (Skehan, 2019) while also aiming to integrate working memory in language learning. Phonological working memory (PWM) and language analytic ability (LAA) are two key aspects in aptitude, as it has been observed that PWM could be the main skill used in initial stages of language acquisition, as opposed to LAA that might gain importance in later stages as well as in adult learning (Wen & Skehan, 2021). A recent study (Udry & Berthele, 2021) contradictorily shows how LAA was more relevant in their younger group of students, in grades 4 and 5, than in the older group attending grades 5 and 6.

Seeing how other studies have successfully determined the possibility of children displaying this individual difference dissociation (e.g. Berthele & Udry, 2021; Roehr-Brackin & Tellier, 2019), the current project attempts to observe how foreign language aptitude, as measured by the LLAMA test (Meara, 2005), contributes to the proficiency of multilingual children in two age groups: grade 2 (N = 31), around 7 years old, and grade 6 (N = 34), around 11 years old. All the participants attend an international school in Beijing, China, and therefore they all spoke at least Mandarin Chinese and English, with 46.2% of the participants speaking another first language (L1). In view of previous findings, the question remains whether the younger group will have language aptitude with higher scores on working memory tasks (LLAMA B) or if findings will support Udry’s and Berthele’s (2021) study; and whether the older group will display better language analytic abilities, or conversely being still children, they will also depend more on their PWM.

Backwards regressions results showed that, when accounting for age, LLAMA B, which measures rote memory for vocabulary learning, emerges as a predictor of proficiency for the whole sample (t(62) = 3.00, p = .004, β = .376). Interestingly, when splitting the sample by grade, it is both LLAMA B and LLAMA D, which show a correlation in the younger age group (t(28) = 2.16, p = .039, β = .347 ; t(28) = 2.30, p = .029, β = .370). Meanwhile, language analytic ability as measured by the Ottó test (2004), although not by LLAMA F, showed statistical significance (t (33) = 2.04, p = .049, β = .340). These results go in line with the expectation that younger learners, who are at an earlier acquisitional stage and who allegedly have a better capacity to learn implicitly, would do best in vocabulary and auditory ability skills, while analytical skills gain relevance in older learners.

ID 15 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Ying Luo (Penn State University), Ehean Kim (Penn State University), Xiaofei Lu (Penn State University)
  • Title-Enhancing the Development of Noun Phrase Post-modification in L2 English Learners through Repeated Computerized Dynamic Assessment
  • Abstract

Academic writing is characterized by a high density of complex noun phrases (NPs) (Biber et al., 2011). Proficiency in constructing complex NPs is thus a critical skill for second language (L2) learners aiming to produce high-quality academic writing (Crossley et al., 2014). NP post-modification, a primary means for achieving NP complexity, constitutes one of the most challenging complexity features for L2 English learners to acquire (Biber et al., 2011). Researchers have recommended explicit instruction to promote L2 learners’ proficiency in engaging with complex NPs in academic writing (Biber et al., 2020). However, studies of instructed development of NP post-modification among L2 learners remain scant.

To address this gap, the current study investigates the instructed development of NP post-modification among undergraduate-level English as a second language (ESL) learners using repeated computerized dynamic assessment (CDA). CDA has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for integrating assessment with instruction, with the capacity to assess individual learners’ unique needs and provide personalized feedback to learners requiring additional support without overburdening teachers with the task of tailoring instruction for each individual student (Poehner et al., 2015; Zhang & Lu, 2019). Our study aims to address the following three research questions: 1) How does CDA impact ESL learners’ understanding of NP post-modification and their production of NP post-modifiers? 2) How do ESL learners perceive their experiences of learning NP post-modification through CDA? 3) How does the instructor perceive the experience of implementing CDA in teaching NP post-modification?

Our participants are recruited from a regularly scheduled grammar class in an intensive English language program at a large public university in the northwestern region of the United States. The participants are administered a series of CDA tests focusing on different types of NP post-modification over multiple weeks. Each item in the tests contains a series of scripted mediating prompts. These prompts are derived from pilot administrations of interactionist DA tests but are presented in the CDA following the interventionist DA conventions (Poehner et al., 2015). The learners’ test scores and learning profiles (Feuerstein et al., 2010), generated automatically at the end of each test, are analyzed using descriptive statistics and repeated measures ANOVAs to address the first research question. A semi-structured interview is conducted with each learner and the instructor at the end of the study, and the interview transcripts are analyzed thematically to address the second and third research questions.

Our findings will contribute to the understanding of the effectiveness of CDA for fostering L2 English learners’ development of the skills to employ NP post-modification in academic writing as well as learner and teacher perceptions of integrating CDA in the L2 classroom. Our study also contributes to the ongoing discourse on enhancing L2 learners’ conceptual understanding of syntactic complexity and the ability to engage with syntactic complexity appropriately in academic writing.

ID 21 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Gabrielle Stokes (Pennsylvania State University), Adriana Miller (Pennsylvania State University), Michele Diaz (Pennsylvania State University), Janet van Hell (Pennsylvania State University)
  • Title-Understanding emotion in different languages: Emotional prosody recognition in bilinguals and the impact of background noise
  • Abstract

There are two main components to how we speak: what we say and how we say it. Currently, improvements in cross culture communication focus on translational efforts and how to get messages across semantically—the what we say. However, one of the most crucial components of connecting and communicating is the emotions we convey when we speak—the how. There have been limited studies investigating emotional prosody recognition, especially between different languages. Therefore, the results gathered from this studied have filled this gap in research (and applied it further to bilingual individuals) and increased our knowledge on the cultural effects on emotion interpretation rather than just comprehension. Multiple previous studies have examined how humans recognize emotion in a foreign language that they don’t speak, with an overarching goal to examine whether aspects of emotional prosody may have universal qualities (e.g., Paulman & Uskul, 2014; Pell et al., 2009). Their findings concluded that there is an “in-group advantage” in emotional prosody recognition where participants more accurately recognize emotions in their native language compared to a foreign language (Pell et al., 2009). However, it remains to be seen how these effects apply to bilingual individuals. This follow-up study investigated how this “in-group advantage” applies to individuals in their second language as well as their first language. At Radboud University in the Netherlands, Dutch-English bilinguals listened to pseudo-sentences in Dutch (L1), English (L2), Arabic (foreign), and Hindi (foreign). These pseudo-sentences were created to match the phonetics and syntax of each language but containing meaningless words, allowing participants to only focus on the prosodic elements of the speech (for an English example, the fector egzullin the boshent).  For each language, participants listened to pseudo-utterances spoken with happy, sad, fearful, angry and neutral intonation. After listening to each pseudo-utterance participants determined which emotion they thought the speaker expressed using a button press. Based on this task, we discovered that emotion identification accuracy for second language was better than that for both foreign language and native language. Therefore, the “in-group advantage” applies to second language even more than first language. Furthermore, to investigate the effect of background noise on emotion recognition (to mimic a real-world scenario), pseudo-utterances were presented in quiet or in two-talker Dutch babble. We found that participants had decreased emotion identification accuracy in the babble condition when compared to the quiet condition. In addition, results also indicated that earlier age of English acquisition and higher English proficiency (as measured by LexTALE) were positively correlated with emotion decision accuracy. The results of this study will help to improve cross-cultural communication and recognize the influences of an individual’s culture and environment on language interpretation.

ID 22 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Halyna Zaporozhets (University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany)
  • Title-Studybridge Ukraine-Germany as Curricula Development Cooperation in Language Learning Before and During War Time in Europe
  • Abstract

Recently numerous borders in Europe as well as in the whole world have disappeared. Education language learning has experienced significant changes and new formats of digital classes have been adopted during pandemic times at universities. The terrible war in Ukraine has completely eliminated the boundaries between educational institutions all over the world.  The war even threatens the existence of some Ukrainian universities. Thousands of students have had their classes disrupted. Thousands of teachers and professors migrated within Ukraine or to other countries. This paper discusses cross-border curricular development cooperation in language learning before and during these difficult times.

Ukrainian universities are open and ready for transformations in the curriculum. Over the past years, teachers and students have been thrust into new models of online learning. The pandemic taught everyone to quickly adjust their way of teaching to the changing circumstances and to online, blended, and hybrid learning. The new project of cooperation between the Faculty of Philology at Ukrainian and German Universities to digitalize the most important foreign language degree programs for future teachers is an example of cross-border cooperation in curriculum development to use best practices of technology-enhanced language learning. Being abroad at a German University Ukrainian university teachers explore innovations and integrate new technology into language learning experiences, which helps Ukrainian students better adapt to the curriculum while studying abroad in Western universities. The teaching models dedicated to foreign language studies developed jointly by all project participants contribute to the networking of German and Ukrainian academics and students – future teachers of foreign languages. This project can strengthen the cohesion despite great geographical distances and is also excellently suited to facilitate a long-term study and work cooperation on a global level. The challenges and perspectives of this cross-border cooperation are outlined in the proposed paper

The new project of cooperation between Ukrainian and German Universities in the times of war in Europe to digitalize the most important courses in  foreign language degree programs is an example of cross-border cooperation in curriculum development to use best practices of technology-enhanced language learning.The teaching models dedicated to foreign language studies contribute to the networking of academics and students. 

ID 28 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Jennie Roloff Rothman (Kanda University of International Studies)
  • Title-Utilizing CLIL to Prepare Japanese Students for Study Abroad
  • Abstract

Over the last decade, the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) has been implementing a variety of initiatives to internationalize Japanese higher education and produce globally competitive graduates. Some grants and programs have focused on the development of universities to make them attractive to international students (e.g. Top Global University Project, Global 30 Project) while others have emphasized increasing the number of Japanese students studying abroad (e.g. Project for Promotion of Global Human Resource Development, Inter-University Exchange Project). Furthermore, with the population of 18-year-olds steadily decreasing, competition for students has led universities across the country to innovate as a way to weather the intake crisis (Eldridge, 2017). One such approach has been the creation of new departments or faculties with global, outward-looking angles to them. This presentation will introduce the unique approach being undertaken by one private university in Japan which teaches global liberal arts in English and Japanese while simultaneously preparing its students to study abroad in an American state university system. In the first year, the students focus on building the academic skills of discussing, presenting, and writing as well as self-directed learning skills, all taught in the medium of English. They also have a two-week study tour trip to one of four possible locations worldwide. Upon return, they give presentations about their experiences and continue building English-language academic skills. In the second year, students further develop research and writing skills as well as critical reading abilities. However, this year marks a shift in course focus away from language skill-based education and more towards content, with four different content and language integrated learning (CLIL) courses being taught in English. In the first term of their third year, they have one final English-language CLIL course which is meant to simulate an American university-style lecture and discussion class. The aim is to immerse them in an English-only environment while gradually building their ability to function in such a space, thus preparing them for the demands of studying abroad in the fall of their junior year. After outlining the program, the presenter will discuss the accomplishments achieved, challenges faced, and solutions found by the university before exploring the possible future directions of the program. This presentation will be of particular value to those involved in programs that welcome Japanese study-abroad students and those who are interested in what foreign universities are doing to prepare their students to thrive in English study-abroad environments.

ID 29 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Ahmed Mohammed Alhazmi(University College Cork), Martin Howard (University College Cork)
  • Title-Self-regulation during study abroad – a longitudinal investigation
  • Abstract

Reflecting a growing focus on the role of individual differences during study abroad, this paper focuses on self-regulation which has received minimal attention in the study abroad literature (but see Pawlak & Csizér 2022). Self-regulated learning is defined by Pintrich (2000, p. 453) as “an active, constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and then attempt to monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features in the environment.” Pérez-Vidal (2017) stresses the importance of enhancing our understanding of this multidimensional concept in its contribution to the learner’s experience of study abroad and its correlation with linguistic development while abroad. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study aims to examine how self-regulation potentially contributes to language learning experiences and engagement among university learners (n = 15) of English with different source languages during a sojourn in Ireland. The longitudinal study is based on spoken interviews over the course of three months with data collected at the beginning of the sojourn abroad and three months later. Qualitative thematic analysis of the data provides insight into the evolving role of self-regulation in different dimensions of the learners’ language learning experiences. Through a longitudinal prism, the paper will focus especially on the type of self-regulated learning strategies reported by the learners, the relation between such strategies and language engagement more generally and willingness to communicate during interactional engagement with other speakers more specifically, and finally the role of other individual factors such as learner motivation and personality in the self-regulation strategies and language engagement observed.


Pawlak, M., & Csizér, K. (2022). The impact of self-regulatory strategy use on self-efficacy beliefs and motivated learning behavior in study abroad contexts: The case of university students in Italy, Poland and Turkey. System, 105, 102735.

Pérez-Vidal, C. (2017), ‘Study Abroad in ISLA’, in S. Loewen, and M. Sato (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Instructed Second Language Acquisition, 339–60, London/New York: Routledge.

Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The role of goal orientation in self-regulated learning. Handbook of Self-Regulation, 451–502.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000), ‘Attaining Self-regulation: A Social Cognitive Perspective’, in

M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation, 13–39, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

ID 30 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Weiqi Zhao (University of Cincinnati), Hye Pae (University of Cincinnati)
  • Title-How bilinguals read: cross-language phonological activation in English as second language learners
  • Abstract

Using L1 strength can empower L2 capability for second language (L2) learners (Gass et al., 2020). However, it seems hard to do when learners’ L1 and L2 are so different. Chinese-English L2 learners have reading experience in Chinese, which is a typical logographic language and adopts a script with an untransparent orthography. It is important to understand whether and how learners’ Chinese linguistic knowledge impacts their L2 word recognition.

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the phonological knowledge of Chinese (L1) impacts Chinese-English learners’ English (L2) word recognition and whether the phonology of L2 words is involved in L1 word recognition. Although Zhou et al. (2010) indicated that cross-language phonological interaction exists in Chinese-English late bilinguals, more evidence is needed to support a consistent conclusion. Besides, Zhou et al. (2010) did not examine the effect of phonological information on Chinese (L1) from sub-lexical level.

Therefore, this study aimed to answer the following questions: 1) Whether is the phonological information from the sub-lexical level in Chinese involved in Chinese-English learners’ L2 and L1 word recognition? 2) Whether does L2 language proficiency play a role in sub-lexical level phonological interaction in this process?

One hundred and seventeen Chinese-English learners studying in the United States participated in this study. They completed a lexical decision task (LDT) and an English proficiency test. The LDTs were programmed using E-Prime 3.0 software and presented on a laptop.

We designed LDT with a priming paradigm to examine the effect of sub-lexical phonological information from Chinese words in learners’ bilingual word recognition. In LDT, participants were primed by a Chinese or English word and then asked to judge if a target word in English or Chinese is a word. Nighty pairs of priming-target words shared pronunciation similarity, and thirty pairs did not. These sound-similar word pairs contained three groups according to the degree of sub-lexical phonological information in the Chinese word: high-degree group (30), low-degree group (30), and no sub-lexical phonological information involved (30). Another 120 pseudoword pairs were included as fillers. Participants’ reaction times were recorded and analyzed. By comparing the reaction time in different groups with a linear mixed model (LMM), we could infer whether the sub-lexical phonological information was involved in Chinese-English learners’ word recognition.

LMM results showed that participants with a high English proficiency needed a longer time to make judgments for the L2 target word when they were primed by a Chinese word with high-degree phonological information from a sub-lexical level (p<0.05). The result also supported this cross-language effect from the opposite direction. Participants needed a longer time to judge a Chinese target word when they were primed by a sound-similar English word (p<0.05). These findings indicated the inhibitory effect of cross-language phonological similarity in Chinese (L1) lexical decision tasks. Furthermore, we found the involvement of sub-lexical level phonological information in English (L2) LDT, although it is intermediated by bilinguals’ English (L2) proficiency.

ID 31 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Walther Glodstaf (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign),
  • Title-Assisting the Development of Heritage Languages via Study Abroad: Results from a Priming Study
  • Abstract

Re-immersion into the native language has been shown to increase language proficiency in the native language for long-term immigrants (Chamorro, Sorace, & Sturt, 2015). However, whether this was due to not using the other language during re-immersion, has not been determined yet. For heritage speakers considering study abroad this is an important question though, since not all programs can guarantee full immersion into the heritage language. This abstract presents preliminary results from a crosslinguistic priming study that suggest that full immersion language is not necessary for the improvement and maintenance of the native language for long-term immigrants, which increases the number of programs that can help students in improving and maintaining their heritage language.

The experiment tested if cross-linguistic priming of the unmarked accusative case-form Acc(0) and the marked form Acc(n) were possible from English or Estonian to Finnish. In Finnish the Acc(0) form is the accusative form for direct objects of verbs that do not showcase inflectional information based on their subject. The Acc(n) form is used for direct objects of verbs that do show inflectional information based on their subject. Both adult immigrants to English-speaking countries and their offspring overproduce one form over the other (Larmouth, 1974). The experiment asked if overproduction of accusative forms in Finnish for the adult immigrants is due to the intense contact with English since English only has one (unmarked) accusative form.

To this end, a cross-linguistic priming experiment (Hartsuiker, Pickering, & Veltkamp, 2004) was conducted using rationale adverbial adjuncts as the target sentence, since these sentences can take both forms of the accusative as in (1). The experiment was conducted with 17 English-Finnish and 12 Estonian-Finnish bilinguals that have grown up in Finland, emigrated to the US, Canada, Australia, or Estonia as adults and lived there for at least 8 years. Estonian was used to measure cross-linguistic influence directly, since like Finnish it had both an unmarked and a marked case-form of the accusative.

The participants were asked to complete written rationale adverbial adjunct fragments in Finnish as in (2b) after exposure to a written prime in English or Estonian as in (2a). Half of the sentence fragments were fully translation equivalent with the primes to test if priming occurred only when co-activation was at its strongest. The other half only had a shared verb in the adjunct. The methodology was validated using active/passive sentences in English and OVS/SVO sentences in Estonian as controls.

In both participant groups there was crosslinguistic priming in the control condition. For the accusative case-form condition however, there was no cross-linguistic priming. However, nominal morphology primed within language in both groups. This suggest that exposure to English or Estonian, does not influence the production of Finnish, rather the Finnish used by (and around) the participants influences it. Therefore, increased exposure to the heritage language via study abroad could further improve maintenance through increased quantitative and qualitative exposure by activating more nativelike representations.

ID 41 (Language Development Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Bokyung Mun (Georgetown University)
  • Title-The acquisition of emotive predicates in Korean
  • Abstract

This paper examines whether second language learners of Korean can understand the differences between emotive verb cohahata ‘to like’ and emotive adjective cohta ‘to be good’ in Korean, and whether they can accurately use these predicates. Consider (1) and (2).

Context: Two friends A and B came to a café they have never been. A friend says:

(1)        ?(Na-nun)   yeki   cengmal   cohaha-y.

   I-TOP       here    truly        like-NONP

  ‘I like here.’

(2)        (Na-nun)     yeki     cengmal   coh-a.

  I-TOP        here     truly         good-NONP

‘Here is good.’

In this context, individuals A and B cannot say (1) as cohahata ‘to like’ implies a more prolonged emotional state. In English, however, the sentence ‘I like here.’ is perfectly acceptable. This disparity in meaning and usage between the two languages may pose challenges for learners of Korean.

This study investigates crosslinguistic differences between Korean and English regarding the use of emotive predicates. A total of 31 second language learners of Korean participated in the survey, and the participants were divided into three groups based on their proficiency levels. The median scores and standard deviations for each group are as follows: Beginners (Number=13, Median=72, SD=16), Intermediate (Number=13, Median=78, SD=23), and Advanced (Number=5, Median=94, SD=10). The data suggests that, despite having knowledge of the two predicates cohahata ‘to like’ and cohta ‘to be good’, beginners exhibited challenges in fully grasping the nuances of Korean emotive predicates. Further analysis of the participants’ responses indicated specific areas of difficulty, shedding light on potential areas for focused language instruction.

The observed challenges in understanding Korean emotive predicates among beginners highlight the need for targeted language instruction. To address this, I propose the integration of explicit lessons at the early stages of language learning, focusing on elucidating the distinctions between like in English and the corresponding Korean predicate. This proactive approach aims to enhance learners’ comprehension and usage of emotive predicates, fostering a more nuanced understanding of the language. In addition, I argue for the early exposure of cohta ‘to be good’ as an emotive predicate, given its frequent usage in everyday language. It’s noteworthy that many Korean textbooks primarily introduce cohta ‘to be good’ for describing the condition of the subject, as in (3), and often neglect to provide examples using it as an emotive adjective. This is the case when the subject is a first person or second person pronoun as in (4).

(3)        Minji       emeni-ka            coh-usi-eyo.

Minji’s     mother-NOM    good-HON-NONP

‘Minji’s mother is good.’

(4)        Na-nun     BTS-ka         coh-a.

I-TOP       BTS-NOM    good-NONP

‘I like BTS.’

The study revealed that even though beginners have learned the two predicates cohahata ‘to like’ and cohta ‘to be good’, they did not fully understand the usage of Korean emotive predicates.  By contributing new insights into the challenges faced by learners in grasping Korean emotive predicates, this study aims to enrich the discourse within the field of Second Language Teaching.

ID 45 (Language Development Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)- Andrea Hernando (Georgetown University), Caroline Vail (Georgetown University)
  • Title- “Tenía miedo de darme cuenta de que no hablo español”: Understanding anxiety in study abroad
  • Abstract

Over the last 30 years,  interest in the study abroad (SA) context and its benefits on language development has increased among researchers in second language (L2) studies (Jang Ho Lee, 2018). This interest stems from the value of interaction and the interaction hypothesis (Long, 1981), as well as the idea that SA participants will receive frequent input from native speakers when immersed in the host community. Thus, SA programs have traditionally been perceived as one of the most beneficial contexts for L2 acquisition (Freed, 1998). However, at the same time, research has also suggested that the SA experience can be affected by different variables such as feedback (Bryfonski & Sanz, 2018), race and ethnicity (Anya, 2017; Quan, 2018), program features (Stewart, 2010), and emotions (McGregor, 2014). Among those, anxiety, defined as “the subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system” (Spielberger, 1983, p. 1, in Teimuri et al., 2019, p. 364), is one of the emotions that has received more attention in the context of language instruction (Dewey et al., 2018). It has been largely seen as an emotion that inhibits the acquisition of languages, affecting particularly the desire to communicate, motivation (Teimuri et al., 2019), and cognitive processing. Up to date, little is known about the factors that can foster anxiety for SA participants, and if these factors have a relationship with other individual traits.

The aim of this study is: 1) to explore how intermediate/advanced learners of Spanish participating in a short-term SA program respond to common anxiety-inducing situations, identifying anxiety sources in this context, and 2) to understand the potential relationships between these responses and participants’ profiles. Data was collected in two different SA programs that took place in Summer 2023. Undergraduate students learning Spanish (N = 19) completed six reflective oral journals while studying abroad in Barcelona, Spain (N = 12) and Quito, Ecuador (N = 7). Journals elicited information about anxiety sources related to their SA experience. An adaptation of the Language Contact Profile (Freed et al., 2004) was also used to collect background information about the participants.

Initial analysis identified thirteen themes by using a grounded approach and qualitative cluster analysis for data interpretation. Preliminary observations suggest that target language, academic issues, and the design of the SA program are the most common anxiety sources in the SA experience. Physical safety, traveling and social dynamics were also identified as recurring themes for anxiety in SA. The study also considers the way in which anxiety sources relate to participants in terms of: program destination, previous SA experience, previous immersion experience, languages, experience in Spanish, frequency of communication with native speakers, and the different activities using the language that they did in the semester prior to studying abroad.

ID 56 (Program Design Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)-Felicia Jennings-Winterle (Plurall by BEM), Antonieta Megale (Universidade Federal de São Paulo – UNIFESP)
  • Title-Multilingualism promoted by and to Brazilians: North and South perspectives.
  • Abstract

Brazil has been considered a country that welcomes immigrants from various parts of the world since the 16th century. After the new settlers and explores, the 20th century received those who fled wars, and in the 21st century Brazil has represented a prospect of a new life for many refugees. Brazil has also seen its citizens leave to seek political asylum in the 1960-1970s, and socio-economic advantages, in the 1980s and 1990s. Since the 2000s, however, there has been an exponential increase on the numbers of international migrations due to hopelessness in face of lack of perspectives of economic growth and overall better quality of life, consequences of various political crisis.  More recently, COVID-19 and its aftermath consequences have also contributed to the increase on the number of migrants both from and to Brazil. One wonders if such rapid expansion can also be seen on the training of teachers, as well as in the development of continuous education and production of didactic material. The answer may not be as promising as the numbers of bilingual programs in Brazil and speakers of Portuguese around the world. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss both scenarios: the north and the south. In the North, Brazilian immigrants have been developing a special sense of awareness regarding the importance of maintaining a Heritage Language — Portuguese — and how it relates to the development of bi/plurilingualism. In the South, the promise of being part of a globalized world and, more concretely, always having a chance to live in another country, has pushed a national movement of bilingual education schools implementation. We will discuss the backgrounds of teachers, their ideologies and practices and what options for training are available to them.

ID 58 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)-Pablo G. Celis-Castillo (Elon University), Vanessa Bravo (Elon University)
  • Title-Costa Rica: Language, Culture, and Ecotourism
  • Abstract

Elon University, in North Carolina, constantly ranks as a Top-10 institution for Study Abroad. The longest overseas program is “Costa Rica: Language, Culture and Ecotourism.” For the last 10 years, the program has included Spanish language classes with Costa Rican professors, a feature that sets the program apart from the other 20 plus short-term abroad experiences that Elon offers during its Winter Term. This presentation describes the process through which we select the students who participate in this program, the way in which they are placed in different levels according to their Spanish proficiency, and the ways in which the Costa Rican language instructors involve them in sessions that are heavily based on conversation, interaction, and real-life-based but simple assignments. For example, students are tasked to have short conversations with their host families about different current events and every-day topics in the country (the political preferences of the members of the family or the families’ perceptions on the Costa Rican economy or its education system, for instance) as well as a final presentation about a topic of their choice, in Spanish. In the context of this assignment, students have presented about their academic majors at Elon, their hobbies and passions (such as their involvement in sports or their interest in conservation efforts), their families, and their plans for the future, among other personal and professional topics. They also complete, daily, short writing assignments using a textbook specially developed for foreign students visiting Costa Rica by our partner institute, ICADS (Institute for Central American Development Studies) (ICADS, 2023). Living with a Costa Rican family for three weeks, having three hours of Spanish class per day (broken into segments with different activities), and interacting during their 21-day stay with other Costa Ricans (guest lecturers, bus drivers, tour guides, ICADS staff, etc.), allow them to advance their knowledge of and comfort with Spanish much faster than what would be expected in just three weeks of exposure to a different language. This aligns with the findings of DiSilvio et al. (2014), which indicate that there is a correlation between student’s oral proficiency gains and their satisfaction with their host families. Throughout the program, students are guided by two Elon faculty members whose native language is Spanish, and who, beyond coordinating the academic and logistical details of the experience, teach a 1-credit preparatory seminar the previous semester, to familiarize the students with the country and its culture, and to set expectations regarding culturally competent behavior.

ID 59 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Kumiko Tsuji (Northeastern University)
  • Title- Developing Intercultural Competence and Global Awareness: A Summer Program Initiative
  • Abstract

Summer language and culture study programs abroad offer students the opportunity to improve language skills and deepen their knowledge of the target culture and society. However, providing students with sufficient opportunities to interact with local communities proves challenging due to a tight schedule with classes, assignments, and field trips. Nevertheless, it is precisely these interactions with locals that give students the chance to enhance their intercultural competence and cultivate a global perspective. A five-week summer program in Japan was meticulously designed to incorporate dialogues with locals in diverse contexts and formats, concurrently developing students’ language skills. This presentation will discuss the strategies employed to design summer study abroad language and culture programs, aiming to assist students in advancing their intercultural competence and fostering a global perspective through a variety of dialogues with locals.

The program is conducted in two key cities, Kyoto and Tokyo, with visits to historically significant cities, including Hiroshima, where students have the opportunity to reflect on the importance of preserving peace. Language courses are held in both Kyoto and Tokyo, and students engage in daily conversation sessions with Japanese college students. To ensure effective communication, students are grouped based on their language proficiency, and Japanese students join each group to facilitate conversations using handouts created by the faculty leader. Occasional code switching from Japanese to English is permitted at all proficiency levels, allowing for discussions on a broader range of topics, information sharing, and idea exchange. This practice also provides students with an opportunity to reflect on their own culture, while simultaneously giving Japanese students the chance to practice English.

Students also get the chance to visit a Japanese family and spend a day with them. This allows students to interact with various generations of Japanese people and observe the daily life of a Japanese family firsthand. Additionally, students actively participate in a local event on one weekend, such as a local festival or a cooking lesson, fostering interactions with the local community. Moreover, they engage in discussions with local volunteer guides in the cities they visit, delving into the historical background and asking questions to deepen their understanding of the city and its historical sites.

During the initial stage of the program, students select a specific aspect of Japanese culture and society to explore throughout their stay in Japan. As a culmination of their Japanese course, they are required to create a video introducing their chosen topic in Japanese. This entails conducting interviews with Japanese people and incorporating their findings into the video. Moreover, as part of the culture course, students are tasked with writing an English essay that explores an aspect of Japanese society that intrigues them, drawing comparisons with their own country. The essay must also include insights gained from conversations with locals.

This presentation will illustrate that the final essays, video projects, and feedback from previous participants collectively indicate that a program focused on dialogues with locals can effectively enhance students’ intercultural competence and foster a global perspective.

ID 61 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Sydney Carroll (UNC Charlotte)
  • Title- The Rose That Grew From Concrete: An Auto-ethonographic Experience of an African American Women’s Perspective on Her Journey of Self Identity Development While in Germany
  • Abstract

It was my grandfather who cultivated my gift of storytelling. I remember staying up for late-night stories in the living room, hoping he would teach me something new about our family, culture, and my identity.  As a Southern, Black Woman Educator I had no idea that my decision to join the  Summer 2023 Germany: Migration Related Opportunities and Challenges program would give me an opportunity to tell my own story that would cultivate courage and a scaffold for academic advocacy. Upon signing up for the program I imagined that the program would help me to understand the experiences of immigrant students in a way that would help me connect both trauma-informed and culturally responsive pedagogies to meet the needs of some of my community’s most overlooked scholars. Instead, I found myself on a journey of learning about myself, discovering my own strengths and struggles as a Black Woman Educator, and as a short-term immigrant in Germany learning to navigate language and cultural norms. In this article have utilized the storytelling tool of auto-ethnography to convey my experience and the process of meaning-making of my time in Germany In my proposed presentation I will discuss how my experiences in Germany through the summer study abroad program informed my praxis as a black woman teacher educator as Ph.D. student and community advocate.

ID 64 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Mar Galindo (University of Alicante, Spain)
  • Title- Exploring Code-Switching in the Spanish Language Classroom: A Comparative Study of At-Home vs. Abroad Students
  • Abstract

The role of students’ first language is widely acknowledged in the acquisition of a second language, as experts have emphasized. Code-switching is a prevalent phenomenon in language classrooms (Turnbull & Dailey-O’Cain, 2009; Levine, 2011). While there is substantial empirical research on the use of learners’ mother tongue in ESL and EFL classrooms (Hall & Cook, 2013; Forman, 2016), data from the Spanish language classroom is limited (Antón & Dicamilla, 1999; Galindo Merino, 2012).

        Therefore, our study delves into the use of students’ L1 (in this case, English) in the Spanish classroom by comparing the code-switching practices between students learning at-home and abroad. Specifically, we contrast an American study abroad program in Spain, with 9 teachers and 78 English-speaking students in immersion, with an at-home group of a US university with 9 teachers and 130 English speaking students. We observed beginner, intermediate and advanced classes in both settings, conducted interviews with teachers and surveyed students. 

        Classroom observations revealed no significant differences between both contexts. The percentage of code-switching and the functions served by English in the Spanish classroom were remarkably similar for both at-home and abroad students across proficiency levels (higher in the case of beginners; more limited in advanced classes). Additionally, we identified that the L1 plays a complex role in at least four ways: as a learning and communication strategy, a means of socializing with peers, a planning tool for task execution, and an affective element in the relationship among all participants in the learning process.

Concerning teachers’ interviews, a consensus emerged that the context influences the use of the students’ L1, with a foreign language context favoring the presence of the mother tongue. Teachers believe that L1 use should be minimized. On their part, students perceive that code-switching can hinder their language learning, but often find themselves requesting translations or explanations in their mother tongue while learning Spanish. Notably, L1 use decreased when students were enrolled in multilingual classes with peers of diverse native languages, in favor of the target language.

Our findings indicate that the impact of the learning context is less dramatic than anticipated regarding code-switching practices. True immersion appears to occur in instructional settings only when students are integrated in multilingual classes, where Spanish genuinely becomes the lingua franca.

Antón, M. & F. J. DiCamilla (2002). Socio-Cognitive Functions of L1 Collaborative Interaction in the L2 Classroom. The Modern Language Journal, 83(2).233-247.

Forman, R. (2016). First and Second Language Use in Asian EFL. Multilingual matters.

Galindo Merino, Mª Mar (2012). La lengua materna en el aula de ELE. Colección monografías de ASELE.

Hall, G. & G. Cook (2013). Own-language use in ELT: exploring global practices and attitudes. British Council, ELT Research papers, 13 – 1.

Levine, G. (2011). Code Choice in the Language Classroom. Multilingual Matters.

Turnbull, M. & J. Dailey-O’Cain (2009). First Language Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning. Multilingual Matters.

ID 65 (Program Design Strand)

  • Author (Institution)- Anna H.-J. Do (New York City College of Technology, City University of New York)
  • Title- Enhancing ESL Programs at the City University of New York: A Comprehensive Overview
  • Abstract

The metropolitan landscape of New York City has witnessed a steady and growing population of English as a Second Language (ESL) learners. While the public school system accommodates ESL classes for those in need, the transition to college often reveals a substantial number of students flagged for ESL designation during placement tests. This paper delves into the ESL programs across various campuses of the City University of New York (CUNY), shedding light on their structure, offerings, and strategies to support diverse ESL learners at both 2 and 4-year colleges.

A focal point of the discussion is the introduction of the Accuplacer placement test, elucidating its composition and its implications for students at different proficiency levels. The paper provides an in-depth exploration of the ESL classes available at CUNY campuses, detailing their curricula, available support facilities such as tutoring labs and cohorts/learning communities, and the range of teaching modalities, including in-person, online, and hybrid formats.

Specifically, the paper reviews distinctive ESL programs at various CUNY institutions, including Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC), Baruch College, City College of New York, LaGuardia Community College, New York City College of Technology (NYCCT), and Hunter College. Taking NYCCT as an exemplar, the paper highlights innovative approaches such as a dedicated first-year composition class tailored for ESL students. This class mirrors the standard curriculum but incorporates an additional two credit hours to enhance language proficiency, demonstrating a proactive response to the growing ESL population.

Furthermore, the paper delves into the integral role of tutoring labs within the curriculum, illustrating how instructors collaborate with tutors to address specific language deficiencies of students. A systematic tracking system monitors the effectiveness of tutoring sessions, providing valuable insights into student progress and success rates.

Given the diverse demographic landscape of New York City, characterized by an influx of individuals from various linguistic backgrounds, the need for ESL classes at the college and adult education levels is imperative. The paper concludes by emphasizing the commitment to continuous growth by tailoring curriculum and supplementary activities to meet the evolving needs of ESL learners, contributing to the academic success and integration of this vibrant and expanding student population.

ID 69 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)– Xinhang Hermione Hu (University of Maryland, College Park), Kellie Rolstad (University of Maryland, College Park)
  • Title-Learning and Teaching Abroad: Autobiographical Narratives about Multinominal, Multilingual, and Multicultural Identity
  • Abstract


Studying abroad immerses students in a challenging new environment where they can expect to develop new linguistic and cultural proficiencies. However, participation in a new culture complicates seemingly basic questions such as how the students are addressed, and their self-perception (Aveni, 2005). Identity construction is closely connected to sense of self and personal names; living in another country, individuals may adopt a new name, especially when one’s name presents challenges for speakers in the host country. The decision to select a new name may also be influenced by Western culture, the desire to assimilate or to be unique, and by name significance (Fang & Fine, 2020).

The multilingual naming practices of international students in U.S. higher education are multilayered, and may not be fully recognized by monolingual speakers. There has been extensive research on naming practices and identity for immigrants (Thompson, 2006), but the mobility and transnationalism of international students creates additional challenges.


This article employs the method of autobiographical narratives (Coffey, 2007; Lapadat, 2009) to portray the experiences of two researchers who have been both students and teachers in study-abroad contexts. The first author is a doctoral student from China who has studied in the U.S. for seven years. She has taught literacy to elementary and middle school students and has participated in short-term study-abroad programs in the U.K. and South Korea. The second author grew up in Southern California, studied abroad in France, taught English in Mexico, has hosted teenage foreign exchange students, and teaches international students. Sharing our various in-group and out-group experiences has led us to reflect ever more deeply on language, culture, names, identities and the development of alternate personas.

Selected Stories

Both authors critically reflect on their study-abroad experiences regarding naming practices, as students and as educators in K-16+. One author chose to use a self-selected English name in the U.S., starting during undergraduate studies. Gaining independence studying in a foreign country, she values uniqueness in her respective self-chosen English, Korean, and Spanish names. However, becoming a doctoral student has influenced her use of her ethnic name in professional settings. She has already encountered challenges related to using her different names in email, for example. The second author was nicknamed at birth, a name unrelated to her longer, more traditional birth certificate name. She used her traditional name for the first time in France as an exchange student, because it exists in a French version; she did so again later with the Spanish version, when teaching and living in Mexico. These alternate names contributed to her sense of having contextually-differing personas, and led to her abiding interest in interculturally-influenced name choices.


This study highlights challenges and provides recommendations for international students and for faculty who work with these students. By addressing the dynamic and complex nature of multilingual naming practices from both student and teacher viewpoints, this article contributes valuable perspectives to the scholarly literature on study abroad contexts.

ID 73 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)– Helena Roquet Pugès (Universitat Internacional de Catalunya), Adriana Soto Corominas (Universitat Internacional de Catalunya), Noelia Navarro (Universitat Internacional de Catalunya), Marta Segura (Universitat Internacional de Catalunya), Yagmur Elif Met (Universitat Internacional de Catalunya)
  • Abstract

Most studies investigating multilingual children have focused on additional language acquisition in monolingual contexts (e.g., Paradis et al., 2021). Multilingual contexts such as Catalonia, a province where Catalan and Spanish are co-official languages, and where the pressure to learn English is growing, have received less attention (Cenoz, 2013). In Catalonia, the need for learning English and preparing students for international education in an authentic and integrated environment (OECD, 2017) draws more and more on the increasingly acknowledged European approach to bilingual education: content and language integrated learning (CLIL), whereby content courses are taught in the foreign language (FL), instead of in one of the social languages (San Isidro & Lasagabaster, 2019). While it can be taken for granted that a reduction in the exposure to the majority language (i.e. Spanish) at school should not result in a slower L1 development in the case of monolingual children in monolingual communities, conclusions cannot be extrapolated to children in bilingual communities whose exposure to one of the two social languages may be limited to school. Therefore, investigating CLIL effects on language gains in multilingual contexts is of relevance not only to know its effects on the FL development but also to study its consequences on the social languages’ development, especially on the minority language.

We investigate CLIL effects at the onset of primary school (Grades 1 and 2) on the development of English, Catalan and Spanish with respect to receptive vocabulary and grammar to address this question: what effect does CLIL in English have on English, Catalan and Spanish receptive grammar and vocabulary development over time, once total English, Catalan and Spanish exposure and other individual differences are controlled for? Participants (N=189) came from 14 different schools. Parents completed a background questionnaire.

We ran six linear regressions (grammar and vocabulary in the three languages) with random intercepts for school and these variables as fixed effects: score at Time 1 (T1), weekly hours of English/Catalan/Spanish at school, following a CLIL approach or not, English exposure outside of school (for English), and language use at home (for Catalan and Spanish). Results for both models in all languages showed better scores at T1, predicted less of an improvement over time, and no significance of CLIL was found. For English, those with less hours of English at school improved less. Less hours of Catalan and Spanish at school resulted in a trend of less improvement in Catalan vocabulary (p= .06) and Spanish grammar (p= 0.8) respectively. No significance of language use at home was found.       

These results suggest that CLIL in English so early on in primary school does not confer any advantages for the acquisition of English receptive vocabulary and grammar, though it does not seem to affect the development of Catalan/Spanish receptive vocabulary and grammar either. While we tentatively conclude that CLIL should not be treated as a priority so early on in schooling, we also acknowledge that the first two grades of school may not be enough time to unveil the real CLIL effects.        

ID 78 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Authors (Institutions)– Hyun-Sook Kang (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign), Summer Xu (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign), Parya Jangjou (University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign)
  • Title-International Students’ Global Engagement in US Higher Education: Shifting Away from a Deficit View
  • Abstract

Much research has documented the motivation, challenges, and adjustment processes, experienced by international students in higher education in English-speaking countries (e.g., Abelmann & Kang, 2014; Chantwell, 2019). Nonetheless, most of the previous studies tended to spotlight the linguistic, socio-cultural, and academic problems encountered by international students, often portraying a deficit image of international students as a monolithic group on campus (Heng, 2018; Surtees, 2019). Relatively little is known with respect to international students’ development of soft skillsets and resources essential for global citizenship and career development in the globalized economy, which contrasts with the scholarly attention to US students’ development of such skillsets during study abroad. In line with the growing efforts to internationalize higher education and its curriculum, a range of co-curricular programs and activities are developed and implemented for global (or intercultural) citizenship education (e.g., Aktas et al., 2017; Bosio, 2021) and career development (e.g., Jon et al., 2020; Wiers-Jenssen & Storen, 2021), two important and interrelated characteristics aligned with the tenets of global citizenship education.Considering the legitimacy of international students as members of the academic community on campus and beyond (Anderson, 2020), it is essential to turn scholarly attention to the experiences of international students shifting away from a deficit perspective to a more nuanced view of their experiences and development.

To this end, the current study examined the impact of education abroad on the development of global engagement and career identity for multilingual international students enrolled in academic degree programs at a US land-grant university. To obtain a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the experiences of international students, a sequential explanatory mixed-methods research design was adopted. The study used an adapted version of Shadowen et al.’s (2015) global engagement scale composed of demographic background, nature of education abroad, cultural engagement, knowledge of the host community, inclusion orientation, and career identity via Qualtrics and follow-up interviews over Zoom. As of now, more than 120 undergraduate and graduate students who identified themselves as international students completed the questionnaire and a subset of questionnaire respondents will be invited for individual interviews. The questionnaire data will be analyzed along the lines of gender, socio-economic status, length of stay in the US, and academic major, and the interview data will be used to be integrated with the quantitative data. While data collection is ongoing, the authors will be able to present the preliminary findings of this study at GURT next spring.

ID 80 (Global Citizenship Strand)

  • Author (Institution)– Kashmir Kaur (University of Leeds)
  • Title-Student Perspectives on Native-Speakerism in Cross-Border Education
  • Abstract

Considerable literature exists on the political and colonial origins of native-speakerism and linguistic imperialism (Phillipson, 1992). Additionally, the promotion and prestige of Anglophone culture as exclusive to ‘native speakers’ (Modiano, 2009) significantly contribute to the appeal of ‘native speaker’ varieties, driven by the cultural and economic capital they promise to deliver.

As the momentum for decolonising English teaching grows, this talk explores the extent to which this trend has permeated the domain of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) within English for Specific Purposes.  There has been limited emphasis in EAP research on non-English speaking contexts, specifically in terms of examining the current state of EAP provision in these diverse settings and assessing how native-speakerist academic English norms influence EAP students’ writing. Mauranen, Hynninen, and Ranta (2010) made an effort to examine academic discourses in a specific European context in their article titled ‘English as an academic lingua franca: The ELFA project’. Highlighting the lacuna in EAP research, this is an attempt to resume the discussion of EAP teaching practices and academic discourses in the post-Brexit era.

This presentation probes into the intricate dynamics of native-speakerism and linguistic imperialism, as well as the cultural and economic capital associated with ‘native speaker’ varieties. Drawing from established literature on these phenomena, the talk examines the phenomenon of native-speakerism by analysing a study on student attitudes in Portugal and the UK. It places particular emphasis on attitudes towards both ‘native speaker’ and ‘non-native speaker’ accents, considering features such as accuracy. The analysis incorporates an evaluation of students’ own English accents, explores their goals in learning English and assess their inclination toward acquiring or not acquiring a specific English variety. Additionally, the presentation explores students’ attitudes towards English as a lingua franca. The study’s outcomes will be presented during the talk.

The study reveals that native-speakerism is pervasive among English-learning students, aligning with existing research in this field. However, a notable finding is the students’ expressed interest in exploring diverse English varieties and World Englishes, despite their inclination towards the dominant standards of UK and American English as benchmarks for acceptability and aspiration. The presentation concludes by critically examining proposed measures, arguing that global-scale solutions to eliminate native-speakerism require a more nuanced approach.


Panel #1 March 1st Friday 2-3:30 or 4-5:30 (1:30 hrs)

Title: Cultural diplomacy: the role of the embassies and the US Department of Education

Summary: In a more and more globalized world the importance of international education and education abroad is paramount. As a part of their cultural diplomacy policies, embassies and the US Department of Education promote international education and education abroad by means of different programs (mobility, professional development, schools’ networks, bilingual initiatives, etc.). The different approaches of France, Japan, Germany, Spain, and the US Department of Education will be presented and discussed.

Part 1: Dr. Jesús Fernández González, Education Counselor, Embassy of Spain in the United States & Mr. Jesús Cerdá, Education Advisor, Embassy of Spain in the United States

Title:  Fancy teaching Spanish in Spain: NALCAP is the answer

Abstract: The North American Language and Culture Assistants Program is a mobility program sponsored by the Education Office of the Embassy of Spain and the Spanish Ministry of Education directed towards native speakers of English (college students, graduates, etc.) who wish to spend an academic year in Spain teaching English in the K-12 Spanish system. Representatives of the Embassy of Spain will be presenting the requirements and the benefits of participating in this immersive experience.

Part 2: 1-hour round table. There will be a moderator from GU who will facilitate the conversation.  Informal and somewhat coordinated conversation showcasing the role of embassies in promoting international education and education abroad.  It is not a succession of presentations. The USED’s presence is important as they have shown a strong commitment to bilingualism and biliteracy, and they have helped education offices in embassies all along.

  • Portugal: Joao Caixinha, Portuguese Education Affairs Coordinator
  • France: Xavier Moquet, Education Attaché
  • Germany: Jacob Comenetz (welcome on board), Senior Cultural Affairs Officer
  • Japan: Taichi Kaneshiro, Education Counselor
  • Spain: Jesús Fernández, Educacion Counselor
  • US Department of Education: Jennifer Hong, International Affairs

Panel # 2 Saturday morning 1:30 hrs 

Convenor: Carmen Pérez Vidal, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain

Title:  SA research and SLA theory: What’s the connection? 

Abstract: This panel is intended to take stock of the existing research on the linguistic and cultural effects of Study Abroad and reflect on the contributions made thus far to general SLA theories. Its ultimate goal is to take a timely appraisal of the evidence so far accumulated in our field, from a theoretical perspective (to name but a few: Freed, 1995; Collentine & Freed, 2004; Pellegrino-Aveni, 2006; Kinginger, 2009; Pérez-Vidal, 2014; Mitchell et. Al. 2017; Howard, 2021; Kinginger & Zhuang, 2023; Sanz & Morales-Front, 2018; Pérez-Vidal & Sanz, 2023).  We will encompass both studies on learners’ processes and outcomes resulting from periods spent in the target language country and culture, and when using English as Lingua Franca (ELF) in multilingual settings. The panel will be organized as follows: first, a general overview will be offered; then we will discuss the contributions made to usage-based variationist approaches with the examination of phraseology development (Bybee, 2006; Siyanova-Chanturia, & Spina, 2020); finally, insights into the Interactionist Hypothesis will be offered based on progress made in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) by students from different L1s while sojourning in a multilingual setting, in a non-English speaking country (Mitchell & Tyne, 2021; Köylü & Tracy-Ventura, in press).  The panel will close with the contribution of a discussant who will point at the gaps in the existing research presented and suggest ways ahead.

Part 1: Carmen Pérez Vidal,  Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain

Title: SA research Contributions and Challenges for SLA theory (20’)

Abstract: This paper aims to take stock of the empirical evidence accumulated by studies examining the effects and the processes taking place when adolescents and adults embark on mobility programmes outside their country. It will reflect on the contributions that such evidence has made to a general understanding of second language acquisition. It is assumed that periods spent abroad stand in combination with periods of instructed language learning, either synchronically during the sojourn, or diachronically, before and following the sojourn, but that they condition language acquisition in unique ways.  (Pérez-Vidal, 2023).  

To do that, first, the most important tenets put forward by new and not-so-new approaches to the study of SLA will be discussed, in light of those unique conditions study abroad (SA) in principle offers. Emphasis will be placed on those that are particularly relevant to the naturalistic context of acquisition that SA represents. Developments such as the increase in the use of English as a Lingua Franca in target language countries, definitely in Europe, and the spread of multilingualism, or the changing nature of mobility with the impact of social media will also be considered. Finally, it will be argued that SA research has come a long way in understanding both the external conditions that impact language learning abroad, as well as the specific trajectories experienced by individual learners. They may explain the mixed findings in some of the SA research.

Part 2: Amanda Edmonds, Université Côte d’Azur, France & Aarnes Gudmestad, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, U.S.

Title: From Stay Abroad Research to SLA theory: variationism and usage-based approaches (20’)

Abstract: SLA theory is nourished by empirical research from various learning contexts. Each learning context differs along numerous parameters hypothesized to impact additional-language learning, including the nature and amount of input, learners’ orientation to language (e.g., greater focus on communication or accuracy), the social/affective positioning of learners, among others. In this talk, we focus on the stay-abroad context and discuss how research on this context has impacted theorizing in usage-based and variationist approaches and how this work could continue to influence SLA theory in the future.

Usage-based approaches share the conviction that “grammar is the cognitive organization of one’s experience with language” (Bybee, 2006, p. 711). They recognize various input characteristics (e.g., frequency) as influential in learning. Theorizing with respect to how these characteristics influence learning has led to hypotheses (e.g., Ellis et al., 2015) regarding the importance of a stay abroad notably for phraseological development. However, studies conducted with learners in a stay-abroad context report conflicting results (e.g., Siyanova-Chanturia & Spina, 2020), demonstrating the potential contributions of stay-abroad research to theoretical refinements within broader SLA research.

Variationist SLA recognizes the socially indexed, variable nature of input and seeks to understand how learners develop sensitivity to sociolinguistic variation (Geeslin with Long, 2014). Such variation is influenced by linguistic factors present in language in any learning context and extralinguistic factors (e.g., gender, situational elements) that may be more difficult to exemplify in classroom contexts than in naturalistic settings. Additionally, variationist SLA has taken advantage of the stay-abroad context to explore the extent to which learners attune to local sociolinguistic patterns. Research examining learners in stay-abroad contexts has shown that they develop sensitivity to variable patterns specific to their speech community (e.g., Kanwit et al., 2015), a finding that has importance for the theoretical link between input and learning.

Part 3: Angels Llanes, (Universitat de Lleida, Spain)

Title: LX learning and use in a multilingual Study Abroad context: new inputs toSLA theory? (20’)

Abstract: SA experiences in multilingual settings have become very popular (European Commission, 2017). However, the little SA research that has examined Foreign Language (FL) acquisition in a multilingual setting has mostly focused on tracking the development of one language, usually English. Hence, the present study seeks to fill this gap by reporting on the L2 (English), L3 (Spanish) and L4 (Catalan) development of 26 international students participating in a semester-long SA experience at a Catalan university. Additionally, the role of language use, learners’ beliefs, and language proximity among the three languages on focus was also examined. Participants were asked to describe a picture in the L2 (English), L3 (Spanish) and L4 (Catalan), from which the widely-investigated Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency (CAF) paradigm measures were obtained for each of the languages (pre- and post-test). Participants were also interviewed at post-test to obtain information about multilingual language use and learners’ beliefs. Results show that a) participants significantly improved on several measures in English and Spanish, b) learning the L2 English did not hinder the learning of the L3/L4 (Spanish and Catalan) or vice versa, c) language proximity did not seem to play a major role, and d) FL use and perceptions varied from student to student.

Given the positive results obtained in terms of English and Spanish development and perceptions, future SA participants should consider choosing to undergo a SA experience in a multilingual setting. Additionally, stakeholders should consider increasing the quota in multilingual countries. Even though the acquisition of a FL depends to a large extent on each participant and their priorities, a SA experience in a multilingual setting certainly increases the chances of learning two FLs simultaneously. This fosters multilingualism among SA participants and, consequently, may have a major positive impact on their professional future.

Part 4: Zeynep Köylü (Universität Basel, Switzerland)

Discussant (15’)

Q & A: (15’) ‘

Short Abstract

This panel will be devoted to exploring the contributions to SLA theory of 3 decades of Study Abroad (SA) research. Following a general overview, it will discuss variationism within the usage-based paradigm, with phraseology studies, and interactionism with the study of multilingualism and English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) and point at new avenues for future research.

Panel #3 Saturday Afternoon (3 papers, 1:30 hrs)

Title: Study Abroad Research Methods In Concept and in Action

Abstract: Study abroad (SA), often hailed as the key to success in second language (L2) learning, is ultimately a multidimensional learning experience that can have differential effects on learning outcomes based on myriad factors that are both internal and external to learners. In recent years, there have been calls to broaden our understanding of how these learner-related factors interact with L2 learning in the SA context (e.g., Marijuan & Sanz, 2018). One way to begin to answer this call is to examine the rigor of our research instruments and data collection methods and think critically about what they purport to measure and how effective they are, especially in the SA context.

This panel will highlight the methods used in SA research to measure: (a) working memory–i.e., the mental construct thought to be responsible for the temporary storage and processing of information in the service of complex cognition; (b) linguistic processing–i.e., mechanisms involved in real-time language comprehension and production; and (c) L2 contact–i.e., opportunities for L2 input, output, and interaction. The presentations in this panel will focus on how these constructs have been measured in SA research (e.g., what types of tasks and instruments have been used, what sort of scoring has been employed), and will display and discuss what types of data are generated by a subset of these instruments. Finally, the panelists will elaborate on recommendations for future research in these areas. The format of the panel will be 15 minutes per presentation followed by 45 minutes for open discussion, question and answer, etc.


Marijuan S, Sanz C. Expanding Boundaries: Current and New Directions in Study Abroad Research and Practice. Foreign Language Annals. 2018; 51: 185–204. https://doi-org.utk.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/flan.12323

Part 1: Bernard Issa, University of Tennessee, Knoxville & Janire Zalbidea, Temple University

A Review Of Working Memory Tasks Used In Study Abroad Research

Working memory (WM) is a mental construct thought to be responsible for the temporary storage and processing of information in the service of complex cognition. This construct has been tied to second language learning, and scoping reviews and meta-analyses have shown that in instructed settings, WM has a medium-sized positive relationship with L2 linguistic development (e.g., Linck et. al., 2014). In the study abroad (SA) context, however, WM has been examined to a lesser extent. Recent calls in the SA literature have urged for a deeper understanding of learner-internal factors that make SA such a pivotal experience for successful language learning (e.g., Marijuan & Sanz, 2018). WM may be one such factor given its relevance for other learning contexts and its importance for processing the target language, which is abundant in SA environments.

In this presentation, with the goal of highlighting prior work and promoting further investigations into WM, we will review research methods that have been employed to assess relationships between WM and linguistic development in a SA context. Our review of prior research will focus on the following areas: (a) describing the types of WM tests used, (b) explaining how they have been scored, (c) summarizing relationships between linguistic targets and the different WM tests. Finally, implications and suggestions for future research on this topic will be discussed.


Linck, J.A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J.T. et al. Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychon Bull Rev 21, 861–883 (2014). https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2

Marijuan S, Sanz C. Expanding Boundaries: Current and New Directions in Study Abroad Research and Practice. Foreign Language Annals. 2018; 51: 185–204. https://doi-org.utk.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/flan.12323

Part 2: Irene Finestrat, Northwestern University & Kara Morgan-Short, University of Illinois Chicago

Methods to Examine Second Language Processing in Study Abroad Research

Study Abroad (SA) research to date has largely focused on investigating second language (L2) development by measuring changes in performance on language tasks. Less SA research has examined development of language processing (i.e., mechanisms involved in real-time language comprehension and production), which underlies task performance. Given the unique language demands inherent to the SA environment, it is possible that learning in this context is more conducive to the development of efficient L2 processing than learning that takes place in more controlled contexts, such as domestic classroom environments. Thus, examining language processing in addition to language performance can help provide a more holistic view of L2 development as shaped by SA.

Our presentation aims to highlight methods for examining language processing by presenting a targeted overview of research instruments and technologies that can provide indices of language processing development for SA contexts . We first present behavioral methods that can be employed using tools accessible to almost every researcher: a computer, keyboard, and mouse. We aim to show how these methods can be leveraged to provide powerful information about how learners process language in real time. We then describe eye-tracking and event-related potential techniques, both of which require specialized technology, but have the benefit of providing unique datasets that can offer novel insights into processing. Subsequent to the overview of each method, we provide examples of empirical research that has employed the method to address questions about SA. We also discuss limitations of each technique, and finally offer guiding principles for researchers interested in incorporating the method into their own work.

Part 3: Harriet Wood Bowden, University of Tennessee, Knoxville & Mandy Faretta-Stutenberg, Northern Illinois University

Measuring Second Language Contact During Study Abroad

Accurate measurement of second language (L2) contact during study abroad (SA) is critical both for theoretical and practical applications. Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theories often cite the advantages of SA for L2 development due to increased opportunities for L2 input, output, and interaction–i.e., L2 contact or engagement. Similarly, SA stakeholders (institutions, instructors, students) assume that SA opportunities will lead to both “immersion” in the L2 and concomitant improvements in L2 abilities.

However, it is inherently challenging to collect accurate L2 contact data in the SA context. Given the theoretical and practical importance of L2 contact, there have been ongoing attempts over the past two decades to improve upon measurement techniques (e.g., comprehensive language contact questionnaires, weekly sampling surveys, simplified forms with more frequent sampling). Despite these ongoing efforts, research attempting to quantify L2 contact during SA and to examine related SLA claims has yielded mixed results, and best practices are not agreed upon.

In this talk, we provide an overview of L2 contact sampling practices along with sample datasets, and discuss concerns and practical recommendations for collecting such data among learners in SA settings.

Panel # 4 Sunday morning (1 hr)

Convenor: Amelia Dietrich, Editor, Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad

Title: Where We Are and Where We Could Be: Education Abroad and Language Departments as Partners

Abstract: This panel session will begin by sharing insights and key data points from The Forum on Education Abroad’s State of the Field Survey and Student Risk Pilot Report that illuminate the current state of the practice as perceived by education abroad/international education administrators and the students who participate in education abroad programming. Panelists will then share best practice examples of how education abroad and language department stakeholders can work together to build and run inclusive education abroad programs that support student learning and development and help both departments achieve their shared and complementary goals.

Panelists- Amelia J. Dietrich, The Forum on Education Abroad; Elena Corbett, Amideast; Jeanette Owen, American Councils for International Education; Angela Schaffer, Fund for Education Abroad

Plenary Speakers

Rachel Shively

Title: Pragmatic development in study abroad: Insights from research


Pragmatic development in study abroad: Insights from research
Students who study abroad in a community in which the language that they are learning (L2) is spoken will have opportunities to use their L2 for a variety of communicative purposes such as asking directions, ordering food, engaging in conversations, and apologizing for mistakes. Successful communication requires not only knowledge of grammar and vocabulary, but also, an ability to read between the lines and understand how context shapes meaning, that is, pragmatic competence. In intercultural communication, speakers with different backgrounds may not share the same pragmatic practices, given that social norms, values, and assumptions, as well as the meanings expressed by language forms vary from one culture to another. Consequently, for those learning an additional language, the familiar ways of doing things in the languages that they already speak may not be interpreted in the same ways in a new language. Immersion in an L2-speaking community and explicit instruction about L2 pragmatics are both ways that L2 speakers can become aware of differences in engaging in social interaction and develop the skills to successfully navigate intercultural communication. This presentation will begin with a discussion of key findings about L2 pragmatic development in study abroad. It will then consider recent advances in the field regarding issues such as instructed pragmatics, the role of intercultural competence in pragmatic development, and learning pragmatics in multilingual settings. The presentation will conclude by highlighting innovative areas of research that can further enhance our understanding of L2 pragmatic development in study abroad.

Eva Alcón

Title: Studying Abroad in Europe: Opportunities and Challenges


In this talk I will refer to studying abroad as a European commitment, mentioning the opportunities and challenges for Universities. I will start with the opportunities offered by the Erasmus + programme in the last 30 years and its evolution in the recent European University Alliances initiative. Then, I will mention the problems that have been found in different areas, such as the learning of English as an international language and its potential threat to minority languages. Finally, I will refer to some of the challenges Universities face to encourage studying abroad, and special attention will be paid to COIL (Collaborative Online International Learning) in an attempt to promote inclusion in international mobility programs.

Fanta Aw

Title: Responsible citizenship and international education: The vital importance of language learning for cultural competence


Uju Anya

Title: New language identities in study abroad: The case of African Americans learning to speak blackness in Brazil

Learning transforms our identities by changing how we think, what we can do, and our future possibilities in becoming. Language learning draws from our backgrounds, linguistic resources, identities, and cultures in a process of personal transformation. This keynote talk presents research on the life-changing experiences of African American college students on a Portuguese language study abroad program in an Afro-Brazilian city. It illustrates how the Black students’ intersectional race, gender, sexual, and social class identities were enacted and challenged in Portuguese. The talk explores how they learned to speak their material, ideological, and symbolic selves in a new language and how linguistic action functions to reproduce or resist power and inequity. Ultimately, the presentation addresses how African Americans can meaningfully participate and succeed in study abroad and other language programs, showing that their identities and investments in diverse communities within and outside classrooms greatly influence success in this field.